Making Inferences • An inference is the ability to connect what is in the text with what is in the mind to create an educated guess. (Beers, 2003) • So, an inference is drawing conclusions based on facts and observations combined with reasoning from experience .
Making Inferences • Peter and Evan were walking home after the baseball game. Peter looked angry and Evan appeared to be a little sad and embarrassed. When they reached Peter’s house, he walked through the gate and up to the house. Evan said, “I’m really sorry… I’ll practice harder, I promise!” Peter did not respond. Instead, he just walked inside.
Making Inferences • What conclusions and inferences can you make about this passage. • Peter is mad • Evan is regretful • They were coming home from a baseball game, so whatever upset the boys happened there. • Evan tells Peter he will practice harder • Did Evan strike out? Did he make a bad play?
Making Inferences • Inferences can sometimes be wrong, even when they make sense. • Something else may have up set Peter • Maybe Evan lied to him about something • Maybe Evan said something bad to him or about him. • These are not likely, but possible. • More likely, Peter is mad because….
Making Inferences • Conclusions and inferences should always be based on what is most likely true using the information available. Do not assume that the narrator of a story is giving false clues about the characters or plot. All the information you need to understand the story is probably given, or can be drawn through conclusions and inference.
Making Inferences • Sarah had not studied for the science test. Her friend Beth always did very well in science. Sarah sat beside Beth in class. When Mrs. Banes began passing out the science test, Sarah leaned over to Beth. “Write big so I can see,” she whispered. Later, Mrs. Banes called the two girls to her desk.
Making Inferences • What do I know from what I read… • Sarah had not studied. • Beth did well in science • Sarah whispered to Beth to write big. • Ms. Banes asked to see the girls at her desk. • Now if I combine what I read and what I already know in my head about studying and test, I can infer that... • Beth and Sarah got caught cheating
Making Inferences • “Come right home after school,” Ann’s mom told her. “I will,” said Ann. She waved goodbye and rode off on her bike to school. On her way home, Ann saw some of her friends at the park. They were riding their bikes through a mud puddle. It looked like fun. Ann decided to join them.
Making Inferences • What do I know from what I read… • Ann rode her bike to school. • Ann told her mom she would be home right after school. • Ann’s friends were at the park. • Ann joined her friends at the park. • Now if I combine what I read and what I already know in my head, I can infer that... • Ann was late getting home.
What Can You Infer? • 1. A young man brings a bouquet of flowers to the home of a girl who goes to his school. • 2. A truck is parked in a Canadian Tire parking lot. No one is inside, the headlights are on and the driver’s door is open. • 3. A man arrives at the home of a woman with red roses and a diamond ring.
What Can You Infer? 4. Your neighbor, married about a year ago, is shopping for diapers and baby formula. 5. A car containing two men has been parked in front of your neighbor's home every day for a week. 6. A car stops at a gas station in the middle of the night and a woman rushes in asking to use the telephone.
What Can You Infer? 7. A friend of yours suddenly begins buying everything in sight - fancy food, expensive clothes, a big-screen t.v, a dishwasher, and a new car. 8. Two of your friends were rushed to the hospital together one evening. When you see them the next day, they look fine, but seem embarrassed when you ask what happened.
What can you infer? • The summer night was warm and peaceful. Zack and his dad lay in their sleeping bags. They stared up at the sky together. The stars were bright. An owl hooted not far away. After a while Zack turned on his side. He went to sleep thinking about the great day it had been.
What can you infer? • Don’t forget to take your library books back today,” Liz’s mother told her. But the books stayed in Liz’s room for two more weeks. By the time Liz saw them again, she owed a big fine. She didn’t want to tell her mother about it, but she didn’t have the money to pay the fine. That afternoon she found a purse on the floor of the school bus. Inside was a five-dollar bill.