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Scientific Revolution

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  1. Scientific Revolution The inquiring spirit of the Renaissance

  2. Nicolaus Copernicus • Scholar from Poland • Proposed heliocentric (sun-centered) model of the universe • Went against previous view from Ptolemy, that earth was the center of the universe • Thought of as common sense, scientific and religious teachings based on this belief

  3. Tycho Brahe • Astronomer from Denmark • Provided evidence to support Copernicus’s theory- observed and recorded data about the movement of celestial bodies

  4. Johannes Kepler • Astronomer and mathematician from Germany • Calculated the orbits of planets moving around the sun • Discovered planets don’t move in perfect circles, but ellipses

  5. Galileo Galilei • Italian astronomer • Developed the first astronomical telescope • First person to see mountains on the moon • Observed the 4 moons of Jupiter rotating around the planet, just as Copernicus said the Earth moved around the sun • Called a heretic- research went against ancient views of the world, and challenged the Church’s teaching that the heavens were fixed and perfect • Called before the Inquisition- to save his life agreed to state that the “earth stood motionless at the center of the universe”, but as he was leaving he said “And yet it moves”.

  6. Francis Bacon • Scientist from England • Scientific Method- truth can only be discovered after a long process of investigation • Stressed experimentation and observation • Wanted science to improve people’s lives by creating practical technologies

  7. Rene Descartes • Scientist from France • Scientific Method- truth can only be discovered after a long process of investigation • Stressed human reasoning as best way of understanding • Only thing that cannot be questioned is doubt

  8. Robert Boyle • Chemist from England • All matter is composed of tiny particles that behave in knowable ways • Difference between individual elements and chemical compounds • Effects of temperature and pressure on gasses

  9. Isaac Newton • Scientist from England • Theory of gravity to explain why the planets move the way they do • Used mathematics to prove this theory- basis of calculus • Argued that nature follows uniform mathematical laws

  10. Anatomy • Study of the human body • More accurate drawings of human anatomy that corrected ancient depictions • Ointments to prevent infection, better ways of sealing wounds after surgery • Use of artificial limbs • Circulatory system • Microscope to examine cells and microorganisms

  11. Chemistry • Develops from the field of Alchemy • Alchemy- idea that one substance can be transformed into another substance • Manipulating the chemical compound of metals (turn ordinary metals into gold)