Paracelus 1493- 1541 ID: was a Swiss German Renaissance physician , botanist, alchemist, astrologer, and general occultist He founded the discipline of toxicology Sig: Wanted a new chemical philosophy based on observation of nature and fresh experiments • Macrocosm/ Microcosm- believed the chemical reactions of the universe were reproduced in humans on a smaller scale • Therefore disease was not an imbalance in the entire body; it was a chemical imbalance localized in specific organs that could be treated with chemical remedies
Worked towards a systematic classification of all known chemical substances- he devised a method of detoxifying dangerous chemical compounds • Introduced new laboratory methods • Compiled accurate descriptions of diseases • His use of remedies were a forerunner to homeopathic remedies, holistic medicine and father of modern medicine
He is also credited for giving zinc its name, calling it zincum. • Modern psychology often also credits him for being the first to note that some diseases are rooted in psychological illness.
Andreas Vesalius 1514-1564 ID: • Belgian anatomist, physician who is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy. Sig: • Contributed to medicine- insistence that anatomical study must be based on repeated dissection and first-hand observation of the human body • Led to dissection becoming routine part of the medical curriculum • His book “ On the fabric of the Human Body” – detailed illustrations would not have been possible with artistic developments of the Renaissance and technological advancements in picture printing.
Terms Epistemology • The study and theory of knowledge- how we obtain knowledge and how we can be certain of this knowledge . • Both Bacon and Descartes worked in this philosophical branch
Empiricism: the belief that experience is the single source of knowledge. A philosophy that states that the senses are the only source of real and verifiable knowledge • Inductive: A method of reasoning from particular to general in science and philosophy. Reasoning from which conclusions are drawn from particular instances and facts
Deduction: to come to a conclusion by reasoning • Rationalism: A philosophical doctrine that believes reason itself as a source of knowledge independent of the senses. The view that reason constitutes the only valid basis for action.
Spread of Knowledge • Emergence of new learned societies and journals- enabled new scientists to communicate their ideas • Disseminate idea to general public • England and France had greatest influence, Royal Academies formed • Most were sponsored by the government- devoted to the betterment of the state
Not true in England- little government support • Emphasized the practical value of scientific research (short-lived) • Emphasis became theoretical work on astronomy and mechanics • Science should proceed as a co-operative venture • Journals published results and general scientific knowledge – read by other scientists and educated the public
Science and Society • Industrial Revolution- tangible proof of the importance of science Q: Why the rapid acceptance of science in the 17th/18th centuries? A: Literate mercantile and propertied elites interested- offered new ways to exploit resources for profit
Show how they can be applied to specific industrial and technological needs • Galileo “ science is fit for the minds of the wise” makes science part of high culture of wealthy elites • Political interests use science to bolster social stability- new science a socially useful goal to reform your society • Increase in food production and commerce
Science and Religion • Galileo- beginning of conflict that marks the history of modern western civilization • As scientific beliefs triumphed- almost inevitable that religious beliefs would suffer • Leading to a growing secularization of European intellectual life
Conclusion • Major turning point in Western Civilization- overthrew the Medieval view and created a new conception of the universe • Changes in conception of “heaven” created changes in the conception of “earth” • Bacon/Descartes leave Europe with the idea of separation of mind and matter- only through reason could they understand and dominate the world of nature
Math becomes a model to which the new scientific thoughts conform • Despite resistance- nothing was able to stop the replacement of the old ways of thinking with the new • A fundamental break with the past than the breakup of Christianity • Forced Europeans to change their perceptions of themselves • Leads us logically to the enlightenment of the 18th century.