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Hand Tremor Sensing Module. Group #4 Ander Sahonero Andrew Mendoza Anisley Valenciaga Tatiana Bejarano Ricardo Siu. Purpose and Goals. Investigate the types of tremors present in humans Examine the causes and treatments Determine the frequency at which they appear

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hand tremor sensing module

Hand Tremor Sensing Module

Group #4

AnderSahonero

Andrew Mendoza

AnisleyValenciaga

Tatiana Bejarano

Ricardo Siu

purpose and goals
Purpose and Goals

Investigate the types of tremors present in humans

Examine the causes and treatments

Determine the frequency at which they appear

All of this will be done in order to construct a medical device which can be used as a tremor sensor

Then use device to observe subject at rest , standing up, and after exercising

what is a tremor
What is a tremor?

Unintentional, sometimes rhythmic movement of muscles of the body

Commonly occur within the hands, also occur in head, neck, arms, legs, torso, or other body parts

Can propagate from one region of the body to another

Occur between frequencies of 5 to 15 Hz

Two main types: physiological and pathological

causes of tremors
Causes of Tremors
  • Natural Causes
    • Caffeine
    • Stress, Anxiety, and Fatigue
    • Prescription, Medication, Age
    • Low Blood Sugar
    • Alcohol
    • Drug Abuse
causes of tremors1
Causes of Tremors
  • Neurological Disorders
    • Caused by problems arising in parts of the brain whose purpose is to control muscles in specific areas of the body
      • Parkinson’s
      • Multiple Sclerosis
      • Strokes
types of tremors
Types of Tremors
  • Resting Tremor
    • These tremors are present when your muscles are resting
    • The tremor may go away or become less noticeable when you move muscles that are involved
  • Action Tremors
    • Occur at the end of a intended movement ( writing, pressing a button, or reaching for an object)
    • The tremor will usually disappear while the affected body part is at rest

Three main types of tremors:

  • Kinetic Tremors
    • Holding arm or leg in one position for a period of time against gravity (writing, holding a cup, holding your arms out, or when you stand up straight)
types of tremors1
Types of Tremors
  • Psychogenic tremor - can occur at rest or during postural or kinetic movement
  • Orthostatic tremor -fast (>12Hz) rhythmic muscle contractions that occur in the legs and trunk immediately after standing
  • Rubral tremor is characterized by coarse slow tremor which is present at rest, at posture and with intention
  • Cerebellar tremor - slow, broad tremor -extremities that occurs at the end of a purposeful movement
  • Physiologic tremor - every normal individual and has no clinical significance
  • Essential tremor-is the most common of the more than 20 types of tremor
  • Parkinsonian tremor - damage to structures within the brain that control movement
  • Dystonic tremor -all ages who are affected by dystonia
are there cures for tremors
Are there cures for Tremors?

There are no cures for most tremors

There are some medications that can be taken to reduce effects

Psychogenic tremors can be treated

treatment for tremors
Treatment for Tremors
  • Drug treatment for parkinsonian tremor
    • Levodopa and/or dopamine-like drugs
    • Lowering effects include amantadine hydrochloride an anticholine drugs
  • Propranolol or beta blockers are used when treating essential tremors
  • Elimination of trigger such as caffeine and altering diet
  • Physical therapy
mechanical interface design
Mechanical interface design

A piezo-film transducer was utilized which a circuit was able to convert changes in displacement to electrical signals

After going through the filters, the transducer is capable of obtaining readings for frequencies that fall within the range of normal hand tremor frequencies

Our device picks up frequencies between 1 Hz and 10Hz

fabricating interface
Fabricating Interface

One objective of our tremor sensing equipment was to make it fully portable and, when functioning as an activity measuring device, wearable

hand positioning
Hand positioning
  • Testing procedure must follow this plan of action:
    • The equipment is to be set on a stable base
    • Hand is to be unsupported and the finger positioned lightly above the transducer
    • Hand (right or left) must be placed in a rested position
    • Measurement to be taken at the index finger or middle finger
positioning of belt
Positioning of belt
  • When the equipment is to be used as an activity measuring device:
    • The device is simply worn across the waist in a belt-like fashion
    • Detach the Velcro straps
    • Place the belt around your waist
    • Fasten belt to your girth, making sure it is securely fastened so device is not shaking while your exercising
components
Components
  • Piezoelectric transducer: to change mechanical energy into electrical energy
  • 10-segment LED bar graph: displays intensity of tremor
components1
Components
  • LM 3914 IC: driver of the LED bar
  • LM 741: operational amplifier to modify input
components2
Components
  • Potentiometer: used as a variable resistor
  • Diode: to allow current to pass in one direction
components3
Components
  • Breadboard: is a construction base for a electronic circuit
  • Jumper wires: used to transfer electrical signals from on part of the breadboard to the central microcontroller
  • Resistors: two-terminal passive electronic component which implements electrical resistance as a circuit element
  • Capacitors: device for storing electric charge.
apparatus
Apparatus

LED and Driver

Transducer

Design of Circuit

Low Pass

Envelop Detector

Input Amplifier

Potentiometer

apparatus1
Apparatus

Input Amplifier

Transducer

LED and Driver

Low Pass

Final Circuit Design

Potentiometer

Envelop Detector

schematics
Schematics

Input Amplifier

schematics1
Schematics

Low Pass Filter

schematics2
Schematics

Amplifiers Combined

schematics3
Schematics

Envelope Detector

schematics4
Schematics

Electronic Module Design

compromises required
Compromises Required

In order to make it portable, we used a smaller graph display

To make design meet the power supply specifications a bulky battery pack was used

long term data results
Long Term Data/ Results

Output of the assembly when

the person is standing

Output of the assembly after

running for 5 minutes

Output of the assembly when

the person is resting

Figure 6- Output of the assembly when the person is standing. (Data Tables, Table 4)

future directions
Future Directions
  • General
    • A smaller transducer
    • Integration of a recording module
  • Tremor Sensor
    • Better patient interface
    • LED displays warning when a certain threshold is reached
  • Actigraph
    • Improve the design by encasing it
      • More durable and rugged design
live demonstration
Live Demonstration

We will now perform a live demonstration of our hand tremor detector with the help of a live subject (patient) from the audience, where a signal tremor will be displayed