prejudice discrimination n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Prejudice & Discrimination PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Prejudice & Discrimination

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 14

Prejudice & Discrimination - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 129 Views
  • Uploaded on

Prejudice & Discrimination. ePortfolio Project Sociology 2630 – Fall 2011 Salt Lake Community College Instructor: Dr. Deidre Tyler By: Kalena Sakaria. 1. Reflection Page Journal of Social Issues The Psychology of Prejudice: In-group Love and Out-group Hate?

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Prejudice & Discrimination' - jovan


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
prejudice discrimination
Prejudice & Discrimination

ePortfolio Project

Sociology 2630 – Fall 2011

Salt Lake Community College

Instructor: Dr. Deidre Tyler

By: Kalena Sakaria

table of contents

1. Reflection Page

  • Journal of Social Issues

The Psychology of Prejudice: In-group Love and Out-group Hate?

  • American Journal of Public Health

Prejudice as Stress: Conceptual and Measurement Problems

A Journal of the Association for Psychological ScienceControlling Racial Prejudice: Social-Cognitive Goals Affect Amygdala and Stereotype Activation

4. A Journal of the Association for Psychological Science

Racial Discrimination by Low-Prejudiced Whites: Facial Movements as Implicit Measures of Attitudes Related to Behavior

Journal of Social IssuesAgeism: Prejudice Against Our Feared Future Self

5. Graph on Rate of Discrimination while working

6. Graph on Perceived Racial Discrimination

7. Graph on Access & Quality Measures Not Improving for Various Racial &

Ethnic Groups

8. Graph on U.S. income over $200,000 by race

9. Graph on Unemployment Rates (16+, Women only)

10. Book: The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination

11. Book: In Her Place

Table of Contents
reflection page

What I understand about prejudice and discrimination is that they have been very prevalent throughout history. Prejudice is basically a preconceived judgment or opinion of another individual or thing. Examples of prejudice that I know of would be, “an organization fighting against racial prejudices” or “if a person has a prejudice against a business or corporation”. Discrimination refers to the behaviors directed against another group. Examples of discrimination that I know of could be discrimination against race and ethnicity, sex, gender, religion and employment.

  • Prejudice and Discrimination can either be positive or negative, but I understand each is usually preconceived and difficult to change. The negative form of prejudice can lead to discrimination, but I know you can be prejudice and not act upon your judgments. Those who practice discrimination do so to protect opportunities for themselves by denying access to those whom they believe do not deserve the same treatment as everyone else.
  • I feel that it is unfortunate that there are those that are prejudice and discriminate against racial and ethnic minorities. You would think that with our “informed” modern society and mind that we would be less ignorant to such things. By doing this project, I hope to strengthen my knowledge about prejudice and discrimination and how it affects our society. I will admit, I am ignorant to the understanding of this topic. I have never experienced prejudice or discrimination, but I know my husband and his family has and I hope that by the end of my research, I will have a better understanding and at least catch a small glimpse of what those who are prejudiced and discriminated against go through.
Reflection Page
slide4

Journal of Social Issues

The Psychology of Prejudice: In-group Love and Out-group Hate?

By: Marilynn B. Brewer

  • Allport (1954) recognized that attachment to one's in-groups does not necessarily require hostility toward out-groups. Yet the prevailing approach to the study of ethnocentrism, in-group bias, and prejudice presumes that in-group love and out-group hate are reciprocally related. Findings from both cross-cultural research and laboratory experiments support the alternative view that in-group identification is independent of negative attitudes toward out-groups and that much in-group bias and intergroup discrimination is motivated by preferential treatment of in-group members rather than direct hostility toward out-group members. Thus to understand the roots of prejudice and discrimination requires first of all a better understanding of the functions that in-group formation and identification serve for human beings. This article reviews research and theory on the motivations for maintenance of in-group boundaries and the implications of in-group boundary protection for intergroup relations, conflict, and conflict prevention.

(Brewer, 1999)

slide5

American Journal of Public Health 2003

Prejudice as Stress: Conceptual and Measurement Problems

By: IlanH. Meyer, PhD

In the field of social sciences, there has been a renewed interest in studying prejudice and discrimination as stressors and assessing their impact on various health outcomes. This raises a need for theoretically based and psychometrically sound measures of prejudice.

As researchers approach this task, there are several conceptual issues that need to be addressed. The author describes 3 such issues related to (1) individual versus structural measures of the impact of prejudice, (2) objective versus subjective assessments of stress, and (3) measures of major events versus everyday discrimination.

How researchers approach the problem of measurement depends on the specific study aims, but they must consider these conceptual issues and understand the advantages and limitations of various approaches to the study of prejudice as stress.

(Ilan H. Meyer, 2003)

A Journal of the Association for Psychological ScienceControlling Racial Prejudice: Social-Cognitive Goals Affect Amygdala and Stereotype ActivationBy: Mary E. Wheeler and Susan T. FiskeThe flexibility of stereotyping matters in social psychology and in society. Previous work indicates rapid amygdala and cognitive responses to racial out-groups, leading some researchers to view these responses as inevitable. In this study, the methods of social-cognitive neuroscience were used to investigate how social goals control prejudiced responses. Participants viewed photographs of unfamiliar Black and White faces, under each of three social goals: social categorization (by age), social individuation (vegetable preference), and simple visual inspection (detecting a dot). One study recorded brain activity in the amygdala using functional magnetic resonance imaging, and another measured cognitive activation of stereotypes by lexical priming. Neither response to photos of the racial out-group was inevitable; instead, both responses depended on perceivers' current social-cognitive goal.(Fiske, 2005)

slide6

A Journal of the Association for Psychological Science

Racial Discrimination by Low-Prejudiced Whites: Facial Movements as Implicit Measures of Attitudes Related to Behavior

By: Eric J. Vanman, Jessica L. Saltz, Laurie R. Nathan and Jennifer A. Warren

They investigated the relationship of implicit racial prejudice to discriminatory behavior. White university students chose the best of three applicants (two were White and one was Black) for a prestigious teaching fellowship. They then completed the Implicit Association Test (IAT), a measure of implicit racial bias. Three weeks later, participants completed a second implicit measure of racial bias by viewing photos of Whites and Blacks while facial electromyography (EMG) was recorded from sites corresponding to the muscles used in smiling and frowning. Analyses revealed that bias in cheek EMG activity was related to the race of the chosen applicant, whereas bias on the IAT was not. Motivations to control prejudiced reactions were not related to EMG activity or the race of the applicant chosen, but were related to IAT bias. The findings indicate that facial EMG can be used as an implicit measure of prejudice related to discrimination.

(Eric J. Vanman, 2004)

Journal of Social IssuesAgeism: Prejudice Against Our Feared Future SelfBy: Todd D. NelsonFor decades, researchers have discovered much about how humans automatically categorize others in social perception. Some categorizations—race, gender, and age—are so automatic that they are termed “primitive categories.” As we categorize, we often develop stereotypes about the categories. Researchers know much about racism and sexism, but comparatively little about prejudicing and stereotyping based on age. The articles in this issue highlight the current empirical and theoretical work by researchers in gerontology, psychology, communication, and related fields on understanding the origins and consequences of stereotyping and prejudicing against older adults. With the aging baby boomer demographic, it is especially timely for researchers to work to understand how society can shed its institutionalized ageism and promote respect for elders.(Nelson, 2005)

slide7

Kelly Global Workforce Index sought the views of approximately 70,000 people in 28 countries covering Europe, Asia Pacific and both North and South America. The survey found that discrimination in the workplace is widespread across many countries , and age has become the biggest hurdle faced by workers trying to find a job.

Respondents were asked a series of questions about their experience of discrimination both when applying for a job and while working in their job. The aim was to identify what level of discrimination was experienced at two important stages – the recruitment process and the daily working life.

Each of these forms of discrimination can be harmful to both organizations and individuals, but they also tell us something about the way obstacles are placed in the way of two different sets of people - those who are entering the workforce or changing jobs, and those who are performing their daily work routine.

In each case, respondents were asked to identify the types of discrimination they had incurred. The choices were racial, gender, age, disability and ‘other’.

(Kelly Services, 2006-2007)

slide8

Perceived Racial Discrimination

Thought the U.S. population in general has a more favorable perception of Asia Americans, major differences still exist in the perceptions of the general population and the perceptions of Asian Americans according to the Committee of 100.

Both the general population and Chinese Americans feel Hispanic and African Americans face the most discrimination. The general population is slightly less likely than Chinese Americans to believe Asian Americans face discrimination.

A substantial majority of the general population believe there are far more Asians in the U.S. then in reality: 74% say Asians constitute more than 8% of the U.S. population, with 40% saying Asians are 16% or more of all Americans.

(Committee of 100)

slide9

Disparities in health care of racial and ethnic minorities in the U.S. vs. non-Hispanic whites have persisted for decades, despite the earnest efforts of health services professionals, governments and non-government groups. The annual National Healthcare Disparities Report, published by the federal Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, has consistently shown that blacks and Latinos suffer from poorer quality of care and worse access to care than whites on a number of indicators.

The latest report paints a gloomy picture. A decided majority of core quality measures did not improve in 2010 vs. 2009 for blacks, Asians and American Indians/Alaska Natives compared with whites. The same was true for Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic whites.

Turning to access to care, researchers found that a majority of core measures did not improve for blacks and American Indians/Alaska Natives compared with whites, or for Hispanics compared to non-Hispanic whites. However, a majority of access measures did improve for Asians compared to whites.

(Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality)

slide10

This pie chart depicts the breakdown by race for all households in the United States that reported an income higher than $200,000. Another way of thinking about this table is that it represents the pool of households that might be typically found in a high-end suburb or neighborhood.

Blacks make up 11.2% of American households, only 1.1% of the high-end households are African-American. The question is: Where do America’s wealthiest African-Americans choose to live? Blacks make up 4% of all households that have over $200,000 income, yet, are grossly under-represented in the mainly suburban wealthiest places . I think this is a whole new geographic research question that needs to be answered. One hypothesis is that it is an imperfect statistical match between Census categories. Just because a household earns over $200,000 does not necessarily mean it could afford to live in a high-end neighborhood.

(Ph.D.)

slide11

The United States is in the midst of a jobs crisis, with an official jobless rate over 9 percent and almost 14 million people unemployed. And it faces a racial jobs crisis, since the unemployment rate for blacks (16.2 percent) is more than twice that of whites (8 percent).

The rate for black men is even higher: 17.5 percent (which is up .5 percent from a year ago).

The question is, what explains the racial jobs crisis? According to Andy Kroll, the phenomenon of last-hired, first-fired explains may explain “the soaring numbers of unemployed African Americans, but not the yawning chasm between the black and white employment rates.”

It’s a problem that spans generations, goes remarkably unnoticed, and condemns millions of black Americans to a life of scraping by. That unerring, unchanging gap between white and black employment figures goes back at least 60 years. It should be a scandal, but whether on Capitol Hill or in the media it gets remarkably little attention. Ever.

The unemployment lines run through history like a pair of train tracks. Since the 1940s, the jobless rate for blacks in America has held remarkably, if grimly, steady at twice the rate for whites. The question of why has vexed and divided economists, historians, and sociologists for nearly as long.

(Statistics)

slide12

The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination

By integrating theory and research with students' own experiences, the authors increase students' awareness of influences that shape prejudices. As students are asked to evaluate research results and their personal, subjective beliefs, they develop an appreciation of scientific evidence regarding stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination.

This is a great book for people who want to learn more about prejudice and discrimination... why it happens, how it happens, in what circumstances it can happen, the most likely places, times, etc, that it could happen, how it effects minorities and the majority, relations between all different types of people, and helpful tips and hope for reducing and eliminating prejudice in the future. 

This is also an excellent book for anyone looking to understand why these types of things happen. It can provide great closure and meaning for anyone who has been through prejudice, stereotypes, or discrimination of any kind, or those who have friends and loved ones that have. You'd have to live in a bubble to not have experienced even a tiny bit of one of these three things at some point in your life, so I would have a hard time imagining that there isn't one person who might learn something valuable from reading this book.

(Whitley & Kite, 2009)

slide13

The long history of prejudice against women has been the focus of many academic studies, but until now there has been no attempt to collect actual examples of this prejudice. Now, the author has gathered together works that document the scorn and contempt for the 'weaker sex' that most women endured for generations until very recently. This is the work of leading members of the intellectual, social and political communities. They published their views in numerous prestigious publications. Fear of women's sexuality was a prime motivator of a great deal of prejudice whereby men, but not women, were permitted sexual dalliance without undue censure. Reading the unabashed bias against women so evident in these pages brings the entrenched misogyny of American society into vivid focus and makes one appreciate all the more the immense efforts of feminists who, for more than a century, have worked to overcome the stereotypes of 'womanly' behavior long enforced by men.

This book is a very important compilation of the history of prejudice against women from prominent writers in the nineteenth century. Why is it so important? Because it is still relevant today!  In my opinion, this book should be prominent in every home and used to open discussions with family members in an effort to get these prejudices out of our lives once and for all.  This book is NOT for women only. It is definitely a book that lends itself for use in book clubs everywhere.  Every page of this book is shocking. I consider this to be one of the best books I have read in a very long time. 

(Joshi, 2006)

In Her Place: A Documentary History of Prejudice Against Women

slide14

Bibliography

(n.d.). Retrieved November 30, 2011, from Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: www.ahrq.gov

Brewer, M. B. (1999). The Psychology of Prejudice: In-group Love and Out-group Hate? Journal of Social Issues, 429-444.

Committee of 100. (n.d.). Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://www.committee100.org/

Eric J. Vanman, J. L. (2004). Racial Discrimination by Low-Prejudiced Whites. A Journal of the Association for Psychological Science, 711-714.

Fiske, M. E. (2005). Controlling Racial Prejudice: Social-Cognitive Goals Affect Amygdala and Stereotype Activation. A Journal of the Association for Psychological Science, 56-63.

IlanH. Meyer, P. (2003). Prejudice as Stress: Conceptual and Measurement Problems. American Journal of Public Health, 262-265.

Joshi, S. T. (2006). In Her Place: A Documentary History of Prejudice Against Women. Prometheus Books.

Kelly Services. (2006-2007). Discrimination: Emerging in new forms in the workplace. Kelly Global Workforce Index.

Nelson, T. D. (2005). Ageism: Prejudice Against Our Feared Future Self. Journal of Social Issues, 207-221.

Ph.D., S. R. (n.d.). Higley 1000. Retrieved November 30, 2011, from Higley 1000: www.higley1000.com

Statistics, B. o. (n.d.). Retrieved November 30, 2011, from www.bls.gov/data

Whitley, B. E., & Kite, M. E. (2009). The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.