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Economic Liberalization NOT Political Liberalization

Economic Liberalization NOT Political Liberalization

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Economic Liberalization NOT Political Liberalization

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  1. Economic LiberalizationNOTPolitical Liberalization • Democracy Wall (1978) • Movement for increase in civil rights and liberties. • Deng Xiaoping shut it down. • Tiananmen Square (1989) • Initially student protests • Spread throughout country • Crushed by PLA

  2. Economic LiberalizationNOTPolitical Liberalization • Charter 08 (2008) • 60thAnniv. Of Universal Declaration of Human Rights. • Liu Xiaobo (Nobel Prize Winner) jailed along with others.

  3. Local People’s Congress & Village Elections • Independent candidates allowed. Are elections “free and fair?” • CCP must confirm candidates. • CCP controls election committee. • CCP sets election laws. Problems faced by independent candidates?

  4. “China from the Inside: Village Elections” • If the CCP is not “infatuated with democracy,” why do they allow elections in the villages? • Will successful local elections increase or decrease the demand for larger democratic reform?

  5. Google in China “Don’t Be Evil” -- Google’s motto • Agreed to self-censorship in order to operate in China. “While removing search results is inconsistent with Google’s mission, providing no information (or a heavily degraded user experience that amounts to no information) is more inconsistent with our mission.” --Google senior policy counsel Andrew McLaughlin

  6. Google.cn • Head of Government Relations fired for giving gifts of iPods to Chinese officials. • “Google Suggest” suggested links the Communist Party found offensive. • China hacked Google’s system. • Gmail accounts of dissidents and activists • Google ended self-censorship • Google.cn now just a referral page to Google.hk

  7. Religion in China • Atheism (official state position) Majority • Buddhism (From India) 8-15% • Christianity About 2% • Islam 1-2% • Taoism (Native to China) Less than 1% • Various other folk religions

  8. Religion in China • Technically protected by Constitution • 5 state-sanctioned “patriotic religious associations. . .” Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism, & Protestantism • Strictly monitored and regulated • Catholics cannot profess loyalty to the Vatican • Religious can only proselytize in registered places • Tibetan Buddhists cannot venerate the Dalai Lama. • Other religious groups are outlawed.

  9. Questions for “The Rise of Tao” • Give examples of how the Chinese government closely regulates religious life. • Overall, does the Chinese government seem to be cracking down or loosening restrictions on religion? • Give examples.

  10. Falun Gong • Founded in 1992 • Physical and Spiritual Well-Being • 1999: Demonstration in Tiananmen Square • Attended by 10,000 • Outlawed as an “evil cult.” • Practitioners were jailed, beaten, and killed in police custody.

  11. Social Cleavages Urban and Rural • URBAN 690.8 million 51.3% (United States=82%) • RURAL 656.6 million 48.7% (United States=18%) • China’s National Bureau of Statistics, April 2011

  12. SIGNIFICANT INCOME INEQUALITY Urban Households Rural Households

  13. Hukou System • System of registering people by household & region. • Registered by city, town, or village • Used by Mao to keep poor farmers out of cities. • Perpetuates urban-rural division • Rural migrants living in cities cannot receive: • Subsidized housing, public education past elementary, public medical insurance, or welfare payments.

  14. Social Cleavages Rich and Poor • GINI Coefficient Index: • Measures amount of income inequality in a country. • 0=perfect equality 1=total inequality

  15. GINI Coefficient Index • Norway .26 • United Kingdom .36 • Russia .40 • United States .41 • Iran .43 • Nigeria .44 • Mexico .46 • China .47 • UN Human Development Report, 2008 GINI Coefficient Index Measures amount of income inequality in a country.

  16. “The End of the Chinese Dream” • “It’s not simply income equality that bothers people.” • “Inequality of privilege” • Guanxi • “My father is Li Gang.”

  17. Geographical CleavageWest & East Ethel Wood. AP Comparative Government and Politics. 4th Edition (Wood Yard Publications, Pennsylvania, 2009.

  18. 8% 6% 27% 11% 8% 4% 17% 10% 8%

  19. http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/china_map_folio/txu-oclc-588534-54932-10-67-map.jpghttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/china_map_folio/txu-oclc-588534-54932-10-67-map.jpg

  20. The People of China • Han Chinese 91% • 55 recognized minority groups 9% • Tibetans • Uighurs • Mongolians

  21. TIBET • Since 13th Century: periods of Chinese rule • 1911-1949: China withdrew • 1950: Mao reasserted control • 1959: Dalai Lama fled • 1965: Tibetan Autonomous Region • Part of China • Theoretically has greater self-control • 2008: series of riots • Year of the Beijing Olympics

  22. Uighurs • Muslims of Turkish descent • Autonomous Region of Xinjiang

  23. Uighurs • Victims of discrimination • 2009 Riots: Protest the death of 2 factory workers (turned violent) • Uighurs targeted Hans. 197 killed.

  24. Mongolians • Autonomous Region of Inner Mongolia • 2011 protests • Mongolian herder run over by Han coal truck driver.

  25. China’s Policies in Autonomous Regions • Crackdown on religious rights (especially Tibet and Xinjiang) • Shutdown access to information • Arrests and show of force– large security presence • Death penalty for Han driver (Mongolians) • Closed-circuit cameras • Large-scale financial investment • Economic development zones • More welfare– housing, schooling (Tibet & Mongolia) • Flood regions with ethnic Hans • Intermarriage with Hans • Hans given preferable jobs and economic opportunities • Emphasize Chinese– not minority– culture • Exemption from one-child policy (Mongolians) • Driven from grasslands (Mongolians) • Against traditional culture

  26. One-Child Policy (1980) • 1950: 500,000 million • 1980: Almost 1 billion • Extra Child? • Pay a fine (varies; but usually at least=annual income). • Punishment for not paying fine. • No hukou for child. • Loss of job; property destroyed • Enforced by Family Planning Officials • Lax enforcement in countryside • Mongolians allowed 2

  27. Issues Accompanying Policy

  28. Population Pyramids

  29. Hong Kong“One Country, Two Systems” • Formerly a British colony • 1997: Special Administrative region of China • High degree of autonomy • HK Constitution: Democratic Process • Beijing has some veto power • Service-based economy • Corporate and banking center • Separate currency

  30. Taiwan • 1949: Nationalists (KMT) under Chiang Kai-shek fled to island • China claims sovereignty over Taiwan • No separate seat at UN • Strong economy: computer technology

  31. Taiwan Tensions with China • Efforts at formal independence. • U.S. supplies weapons to Taiwan. • Chinese missiles pointed at Taiwan. Easing Tensions with China • 2009: Leaders exchanged messages. • 2010: Trade Pact