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  1. Agenda • Referee Uniform & Equipment • Entering the Facility & Pre-match Procedures • Duties During the Match • Ball Handling Calls & Other Rulings • Match Administration & Game Procedures • Sanctions • Officials, Their Duties & Mechanics • Techniques Changes & Points of Emphasis • Officiating Resources USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  2. Referee Uniform & Equipment USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  3. Required Uniform • White (‘Certified Volleyball Official’) long- or short-sleevedpolo shirt • USAV referee patch – recommend regionally, required nationally; FIVB arbitre patch may be worn regionally and nationally by USA Int’l referees • Dark navy blue slacks (NO jeans or faded pants) • Blue or black belt • Solid white shoes and white socks • Well-groomed and neat in appearance • Optional - Certified Official V-neck sweater (approved for on-court wear by either referee) • Optional – white sweater vest (approved for on-court wear by either referee) USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  4. Referee Equipment Required items & equipment: • Whistle with lanyard • Watch (with second hand or timer) • Yellow and Red Cards • Coin for coin toss • Domestic Competition Regulations Highly recommended items & equipment: • net height measuring device • ball pressure gauge and pump • line judge flags USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  5. Entering The Facility USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  6. Entering the Facility • Be at site in uniform at least 30 minutes prior to start time, preferably earlier! • Locate event manager or tournament director • Meet with co-officials and discuss ground rules • Determine format and protocols • Responsibilities begin with arrival courtside USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  7. Entering the Facility • Facility & Court Inspection • Service zone: Are sideline extensions present to define the service zone? • Are attack lines extended, if necessary? • Overhead obstructions • Playing vs. non-playing areas: Adjacent courts? Pursuit? Sport Court or other portable surface? Safety issues? Location of spectators? USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  8. Match Equipment • Game balls: color and pressure • Net: height; tautness; exposed tensioning devices; posts/supports and padding; antennas; vertical tape markers (if used) • Referee stand • Scoreboard or flip score • Timing device USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  9. Player Uniforms • Player uniforms: • Matching shirts/jerseys and shorts • Differing manufacturer logos are permitted • Sleeve length may vary (short vs long); sleeveless shirts or tank tops not considered “matching” with short/long sleeves • Exposed undergarments • Number placement – CENTERED on front and back of jersey USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  10. Player Uniforms • The Libero uniform: • Jersey must be contrasting color • May not include any color from the predominant colors of the team’s regular jerseys • Examples included in DCR • Exposed undergarments may differ from rest of team • Re-designated Libero uniform • Differing shorts permitted USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  11. Player Equipment • Splints and braces • Allowed on hand or arm provided it does not give the player an artificial advantage or pose risk of injury; may need to be covered or padded; • Hard plaster or fiberglass cast on hand/forearm is not permitted • Medical devices (insulin pumps, etc.) • Permitted provided such a device poses no risk of injury to player or other participants; cannot give artificial advantage USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  12. Pre-match Procedures USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  13. Pre-match Procedures • Captains’ meeting: • Introductions • Ground rules • Warm-up protocol & match format • Jewelry • Libero replacements & substitution procedure • Second referee input • Answer questions • Coin toss • After each teams has played, subsequent captains’ meetings should be brief! USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  14. Pre-match Procedures • Meet with scorekeeper and assistant scorekeeper: • Review scorekeeper duties • Recording subs, time-outs and sanctions; • Informing referees of subs, time-outs taken, wrong servers and illegal substitutions; • Verify server before each serve; • Ensure lineups are recorded correctly; • End of set/match procedures. USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  15. Pre-match Procedures • Meet with scorekeeper and assistant scorekeeper: • Review assistant scorekeeper duties • Use of tracking sheet for Libero replacements and substitutions • Handling illegal Libero replacements (after contact of serve) • Communication with scorekeeper. USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  16. Pre-match Procedures • Meet with line judges: • Positioning on court • Prior to match; • During time-outs (mid-point of end line); • Between sets (neutral area); • When server is within 4’-5’ of line judge (step behind server in line with sideline extended). USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  17. Pre-match Procedures • Meet with line judges: • Calls and signals • Balls landing “in” or “out” • Foot faults by the server • Foot faults by players outside the court lines • Touches • Help with “pancake” digs near the floor USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  18. Pre-match Procedures • Meet with line judges: • Calls and signals (con’t) • Balls crossing over or outside an antenna • Ball touching an antenna • Implications of “Pursuit Rule,” if being used • Screened from viewing a play • Reporting rude remarks or inappropriate behavior • Review signals (with or without flags) • Signals should be held long enough to be seen by a referee USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  19. Pre-match Procedures • Referees’ pre-match communication: • Rule changes • Ground rules • Assistance with judgment calls • how & when to signal; do not offer opinions • Use of informal signals • R2 method for requesting sanctions • Bench control • Who conducts deciding set coin toss? USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  20. Pre-match Procedures • Referees’ pre-match communication: • First referee determines who will conduct the deciding set coin toss • Post-match procedures: • Toot-n-Scoot • Include scorekeepers and line judges in the post-match debrief when appropriate USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  21. Pre-match Procedures • Warm-up Procedures: • First referee must supervise the warm-ups • May request second referee to time the segments • Ensure safety • Observe skill level of teams • Review teams for jewelry and uniform/equipment legality • Verify Libero jersey contrast USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  22. During The Match USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  23. During the Match • Signal teams to end lines or onto court following Junior pre-match protocol, DCR page 166) • Check line-ups • During service: • Eight second violation • Five seconds for 14 & Under • Re-serves not allowed • 14 & Under – a re-serve is allowed for each serve; five seconds permitted per attempt; ball must drop, untouched USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  24. During the Match • During service (continued): • Foot faults by the server • Served ball contacting antenna or obstruction • Served ball contacting net • No requests after the beckon • Positional faults USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  25. During the Match • During service (continued): • Screening • Movement of players on serving team • Flight of ball • Separation of players • Players bending over • Server must be visible to receiving team USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  26. During the Match • During service (continued): • Blocking or attacking the serve • Attacking is illegal only if ball is attacked while the ball is in the front zone and completely higher than the top of the net • Player, other than server, off the court • A rally begins with the service contact USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  27. During the Match • Ball in or out of play: • Ball is in when it lands in the court or on the lines • Ball must cross the net between the antennas (Pursuit Rule implications) • Ball is in if any part touches the line USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  28. During the Match • Ball in or out of play (continued): • Ball is out of play when: • the ball lands completely outside the boundary lines; • the ball contacts an object or person outside the playing area; • the ball contacts the ceiling or overhead objects above opponent's court; • the ball contacts the ceiling or overhead objects above team playing area and crosses into opponent'scourt; • the ball contacts an antenna, or any part of the net system outside the antenna. USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  29. During the Match • Ball in or out of play (continued): • Ball is out of play when: • the ball completely crosses the plane of the net outside the antenna (Pursuit Rule implications); • the ball contacts any object over non-playing areas. • Ball contacting an official is out of play; no replay • The play ends with the referee's whistle USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  30. Ball Handling Calls USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  31. Ball Handling Calls • Sets (overhand ball handling): • Double hits • Allowed on first contact • Caught or thrown • One-handed sets • Use same judgment as two-handed set • Judge contact, not technique • Concept of “over-control” vs “under control” USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  32. Ball Handling Calls • Passes or digs (underhand/forearm ball handling): • Allowable multiple contacts • Illegal multiple contacts • Contact with the ball made only by hair is ignored – not a touch • Caught or thrown ball • Ball played out of the net – consistency with other calls • Judge contact, not technique USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  33. Ball Handling Calls • Tips and dumps: • Duration of contact • Same latitude as sets • Direction of the ball before and after contact • Caught/thrown ball • Judge contact, not technique USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  34. Ball Handling Calls • Attacking: • Point of contact in relationship to the rest of the body • Contact of ball must be made above that player’s own playing space; reaching beyond net to “save” a ball is illegal if contact is made with ball above opponent’s playing space • Duration of contact • Judge contact, not technique USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  35. Ball Handling Calls • Blocking: • Definition: player reaching higher than the top of the net • Duration of contact • Directional blocks • Trapping the ball against the net • Illegal or legal blocker • Ball rolling down the body – probably legal • Contacting the ball before the hitter • Reaching beyond the net – when is it allowed? • Collective blocks – only players who meet the definition of a blocker can be considered part of a collective block • Non-blocking back row setter in the area of the block – may be 1st team hit or a block USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  36. Ball Handling Calls • Four Hits: • Watch closely for blocking team contact after third team hit • Determine if part of the ball has touched the block along with the net • If third hit is not contacted by the block and ball is contacted again by the attacker, “two hits" is called; if the attacker’s teammate contacts the ball, “four hits” is called • Line judges do not assist in making this call USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  37. Ball Handling Calls • Back row attacks/blocks: • Attacker’s foot/feet position in relation to the attack line • Position of ball above or (partly) below the top of the net as a factor for back row attacks • Position of player above or below the top of the net as a factor for back row blocks • Ball legally blocked back into an attacker • Ball legally blocked back into a setter trying to retrieve it from near the plane of the net • Simultaneous contact of a ball in the plane of the net by a back row player (setter) and an opposing player USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  38. Other Rulings USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  39. Other Rulings • Net play: • Net driven into player • Contact with the net is not a fault unless the player is in the action of playing the ball or such contact interferes with play; contacting the ball is not a requirement to be “playing the ball” • Contact with antenna by player (illegal) • Contact with net supports by player (legal) • Intentionally deflecting ball through the net (illegal) USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  40. Other Rulings • Center line: • Hand or foot on or above center line (legal) • Hands or feet completely over the line, or other body parts in contact with opponent’s court (illegal) • Crossing under the net outside the sideline (including Pursuit Rule implications) • Interference with the opposing team • Penetration under the plane of the net without contacting the floor USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  41. Other Rulings • Potential play-over situations: • Inadvertent whistles • Play ends and ball is out of play • Referee makes ruling not penalizing either team • Objects less than 2m (6’6”) from the court interfering with ability to play the ball • Ball contacts overhead object less than 4.6m (15’) above playing area • Ball contacts a person (media or spectator) in free zone during legal attempt to play the ball; ball contact with an official does not result in a replay USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  42. Other Rulings • Potential play-over situations: • Player contact with an official IF the contact impedes an otherwise legal attempt to play the ball • Ball comes to rest on an overhead object above team's playing area and is still playable • Simultaneous faults • Object coming onto the court that interfere with play • Play is stopped due to injury anywhere on court or free zone USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  43. Other Rulings • Whistles: • Simultaneous whistles that occur just as whistle for serve is blown • First referee determines which occurred first • Either allow request or assess improper request • Simultaneous whistles that occur to end a play • First referee determines which fault occurred first • If referee cannot decide which whistle occurred first, award a play-over USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  44. Match Administration USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  45. Match Administration • Substitutions: • Unlimited player entries • Twelve (12)substitutions per team, plus unlimited Libero replacements • Re-entry into the set must be in the same position • Substitution area between center line and attack line • Subs must be near sub zone at time of request; if not, no whistle to recognize request! • Sub request by each team during same dead ball requires separate whistle for each team’s request USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  46. Match Administration • Substitutions (continued): • Requested only by the head coach or captain • Location of coach(es) and substitutes • Substitute entering the sub zone constitutes a request • Players must wait until authorized by the second referee to enter the set • For multiple substitutions by the same team, each substitute must enter the substitution zone successively, one at a time • Subs may leave bench/warm-up area for medical reasons; coach/captain must make every effort to notify referees of the departure USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  47. Match Administration • Libero replacements: • Libero number on the line-up sheet at the beginning of each set • Libero may not serve as team or game captain USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  48. Match Administration • Libero replacements: • Replacement of players • The Libero may replace any back row player, including an injured player if Libero is not on court at time of injury • Replacements are unlimited, but one rally must occur between replacements • Libero must be replaced by player whom the Libero replaced (the replacement may then be substitutedbefore the next play begins) • Replacements take place when the ball is out of play • Replacement location – all replacements must occur over the sideline between the attack line and theend line • Late replacements (after beckon but before service contact) USA Volleyball Referee Clinic

  49. Match Administration • Libero: • Libero playing actions • Back row player only • May not complete an attack hit when the ball is entirely above the top of the net from anywhere on the court • May not block, attempt to block or serve • Restrictions on attack hits after Libero makes an overhand fingertip pass in the front zone USA Volleyball Referee Clinic