Winter Feeding of Beef Cattle - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Winter Feeding of Beef Cattle

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  1. Winter Feeding of Beef Cattle Level II Agricultural Business Operations

  2. Objectives

  3. Topics to be covered:- • Cattle Energy requirements • Silage • Assessing silage quality • Assessing the quantity of silage available • Concentrates • Types of concentrate feedstuffs • Assessing ration quality

  4. Types of feed Animals need a balanced diet containing the correct amounts of: • Energy: for movement and growth • Protein: for muscles, milk production, and embryo development • Minerals: for bones and to maintain the animal’s system

  5. Different parts of food Water Food Fibre Carbohydrate Protein Dry matter Fats Mineral and vitamins All foods contain Water ---- the remaining part is called Dry Matter

  6. Cattle Energy Requirments Cattle require energy for: Maintenance Production - Growth - Milk Energy (ME) is measured in megajoules (MJ) REQUIREMENT = MAINTENANCE + PRODUCTION

  7. Maintenance The amount of energy an animal needs for maintenance depends on their size A 400 kg store heifer requires 46MJ/day to maintain herself

  8. Key Production Principles Liveweight Gain • It takes 32MJ to produce 1kg of live-weight gain Milk Production • It takes 5MJ to produce 1litre of milk

  9. Example: • A 400 kg store heifer growing at 0.5kg per day • Maintenance requirement = 46MJ • Growth: 32MJ per 1Kg x 0.5 = 16MJ _____ Total Daily Requirement = 62MJ All feed decisions revolve around meeting this target

  10. What is silage? Silage forms the bulk of the livestock diet for six months of the year through the winter months. Silage is conserved grass that is made by farmers when the grass supply is plentiful. Silage is made by preserving the grass under naturally produced acidic conditions which effectively pickle the crop. Silage is quite moist and usually preferred by livestock to hay as it is more palatable and of higher food value.

  11. Silage feeding order • Target best silage to most productive stock – • Finishing cattle • Lactating cows • Young growing cattle • Dry cows

  12. Silage Analysis – Why? • To assess feed value, predicted animal performance and the need for supplementation. • To identify early the stability of the silage and possible impacts on waste and animal health.

  13. Taking a silage sample • Wait until six weeks after harvest. • Take several cores across the clamp. • Squeeze air out before sealing tightly. • Send to lab early in the week. • Provide as much information as possible • e.g. 1st or 2nd cut

  14. ME

  15. Assessing Silage Feeding Value

  16. Dry matter % ME Crude protein %

  17. Assessing Silage Feeding Value

  18. Dry matter % ME Crude protein %

  19. Assessing Silage Feeding Value

  20. Dry matter % ME Crude protein %

  21. Assessing Silage Quality - Fermentation pH is a measure of the acidity of the silage; it gives an indication of the fermentation quality and hence the ability of the silage to store. Ideally, silages will have a pH 3.8 – 4.2.

  22. Dry matter % ME Crude protein %

  23. Measuring Quantity Calculating the amount of silage in store Silo/Pit: Length (m) x Width (m) x Height (m) = Volume (m3) X Dry Matter Conversion factor = Tonnes of silage

  24. Example Calculation silage in pit 4 ? Width of pit = 10m Assume silage is 30% Dry matter 3m 5m 30m

  25. Silage Pit Volume Section A: 30 x 3 x 10 = 900m3 Plus Section B: 5 x 3 x 10 = 150m3 X 0.5 = 75 m3 Total = 900 + 75 = 975m3 10m wide 3m A B 30m 5m

  26. Conversion Factors Silage Dry Matter Conversion factor

  27. Example Calculation Tonnes of Silage = Silage Pit Volume x Dry Matter Conversion Factor 975 x 0.6 = 585 Tonnes of Silage

  28. Fodder Balance Worksheet

  29. Total Silage Stocks Farm Example:

  30. Silage Requirements Total silage required 1491tonne

  31. Concentrate Feedstuffs Ration ingredients Relative Feed Value Understanding feed labels

  32. Meal 14 % Moisture (Water) 86 % Dry Matter – minimum ME 12.5 MJ/kgDM Silage 75 % Moisture (Water) 25 % Dry Matter Meal vs Silage Meal is up to 4 x more concentrated energy than silage

  33. Types of concentrated feeds • Straights • Blends • Pellets • Coarse Feeds Blends, Pellets and Coarse feeds are a combination of straights, designed for a specific feed task

  34. Straights • Straights are individual feed ingredients. • Can be classified as either: • Energy sources • Protein Sources • Fibre Sources The combination of straights fed depends on: • Target animal performance • Cost (Relative Feed Value) • The quality of forage material available

  35. Name ten straights: exercise

  36. Ingredients of Concentrate Feeds

  37. Relative value of straights Feed Protein% ME Relative value (£) Dried barley 9.5 13.2140 Wheat 11 13.6141 Maize 8 13.8143-161 Soya hulls 10 11.9126 Citrus pulp 6 12.6121 Sugar beet pulp 9 12.5131 Soyabean meal 46 13.8292 Rapeseed meal 36 12.0220 Maize distillers 26 14.0216 Maize gluten 18 12.9 171

  38. Blends Blends • A mix of different straights blended together at the feed mill • Cheapest form of buying meal apart from buying in the straights and mixing yourself • Possible to buy a specified ration • Potential to be dusty with poorer palatability

  39. Pellets/Nuts • Extra cost for pelleting • Reduces dust significantly • Prevents cattle picking out individual ingredients. • Flows well in hoppers and meal bins.

  40. Coarse feeds • Most expensive way to make up a ration • Used as away to improve intakes. • Most coarse feeds are based on around 20-30% flaked maize- can separate out in creep feeders • Often contains ingredients that are cooked or steamed to improve digestibility and palatability

  41. Feed label • Must declare • Crude Protein, • Oil, • Ash, • Crude fibre • Ingredients are listed in descending order. • No legal requirement to declare ME

  42. Ration Quality Two 17% CP Store cattle blends - which is best?: Ration 1 Maize Meal, Wheatfeed, Palm Kernel, Oatfeed, Rapeseed Meal, Sunflower Ext, Soyabean Meal Ration 2 Maize Meal, Distillers, Barley, Rapeseed Meal, Soya Hulls Ration 1: ME 11.4 Ration 2: ME 13.4

  43. Minerals • Grass, silage, straw, and meal all contain minerals • Only required in small amounts • Deficiency can cause nutrition disorders • High producing animals most at risk • Oversupply can cause toxicity

  44. Methods of Feeding Minerals • Lick Buckets/Feed blocks • Direct inclusion in feed rations • Boluses • Molasses Licks • Pasture Dusting • In-Line Water Dispensers

  45. Summary • Assess silage • Quality • Quantity • Know your animals requirements • Select a suitable concentrate • Suitable quality ingredients • Value for money