Neurology and Neurological Diseases. Brenden Yee ID #4171 Compeau, AP Biology, Per. 2 June 12, 2002. Parts of the Brain. Other Parts and Functions. Some Neurological Diseases. Alzheimer’s Disease. Alzheimer's disease attacks the brain; it is not a normal part of aging.
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Neurology and Neurological Diseases Brenden Yee ID #4171 Compeau, AP Biology, Per. 2 June 12, 2002
Alzheimer’s Disease • Alzheimer's disease attacks the brain; it is not a normal part of aging. • The disease is irreversible and there is currently no cure. • About 5-6% of the US population has AD or a related dementia. • It is estimated that by 2050, 14 million people in the US will suffer from AD. • Alzheimer's disease ranks fourth in the cause of death among adults. About 100,000 people die per year as a result of AD. • Memory loss, especially of recent events and newly acquired information, is perhaps the most noticeable trait of AD. • Only two drugs for treating AD have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA): Cognex and Aricept. Areas Affected by Alzheimer’s: A= Cerebral Cortex B= Basal Forebrain C= Hippocampus
Epilepsy • Epilepsy is a symptom of a brain disorder. • The brain uses electrochemical energy, any disruption of the electrical processes in the brain will cause abnormal functioning. • People with epilepsy have seizures that happen repeatedly. It is a bit like an electrical brainstorm. • The seizure prevents the brain from interpreting and processing incoming sensory signals and controlling muscles. • It occurs in about 1 in every 100-200 people. • Sometimes a seizure will be started by stress, lack of sleep, flashing lights or sounds (like from a video game or TV), or low blood sugar. • In most cases, antiepileptic (also called "anticonvulsant") drugs are used to control seizures.
Schizophrenia • Schizophrenia is one of the most common mental illnesses. About 1 of every 100 people (1% of the population) is affected by schizophrenia. • When people cannot tell the difference between what is real and what is not, is called "psychosis" or a "psychotic episode." • Symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thinking and speech. • Possible causes include genetics, stress, trauma, an overactive dopamine system in the brain. • Drugs to treat schizophrenia are called antipsychotic medications. This type of drug was first developed in the 1950s.
Autism • Autism is one of the mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders that appears in early childhood. • Although symptoms of the disorder sometimes can be seen in early infancy, the condition may appear after months of normal development. • As many as 14 children out of 10,000 may have autism or a related condition. • Studies suggest that autistic disorder might be caused by a combination of biological factors, including exposure to a virus before birth, a problem with the immune system, or genetics. • Drugs are of minor importance in the treatment of autism. Antidepressants occasionally help a little. • Conventional anti-psychotic drugs are often highly sedative and have serious side effects, including body movement disorders. • The Autism Society of America, a mutual aid group founded in 1965, provides information and referral services and supports initiatives in research, education, and treatment.
Bibliography and Resources American Brain Tumor Association2720 River RoadDes Plaines, IL 60018Phone: (847) 827-9910Fax: (847) 827-9918Patient Line: (800) 886-2282E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org://www.abta.org Autism Society of America7910 Woodmont AveSuite 650Bethesda, MD 20814-3015Phone: (800) 3-AUTISMhttp://www.autism-society.org National Alliance for the Mentally IllColonial Place Three, 2107 Wilson Blvd., Suite 300, Arlington, VA 22201 Phone: 703-524-7600; NAMI HelpLine: 1-800-950-NAMI  National Institute of Neurological Disorders and StrokeP.O. Box 5801Bethesda, MD 20824(800) 352-9424, (301) 496-5751