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Lesson 15B: Storm Avoidance. Lesson 15B: Storm Avoidance. AGENDA: Storm Avoidance Weather Reporting Weather Prediction Applicable reading: Hobbs WB, App A. Storm Avoidance. 1. Hurricane Season - June through November

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lesson 15b storm avoidance2
Lesson 15B: Storm Avoidance
  • AGENDA:
    • Storm Avoidance
    • Weather Reporting
    • Weather Prediction
  • Applicable reading: Hobbs WB, App A
storm avoidance
Storm Avoidance

1. Hurricane Season - June through November

2. Procedure - Safest with respect to tropical cyclones is avoidance.

3. Key Elements to Determine:

- Position relative to storm center & axis

- Path & velocity of storm’s travel

storm avoidance5
Storm Avoidance

4. Cyclonic Storms - Deflected by the corriolis effect travel in a clockwise direction (Northern Hemisphere).

5. Storm Division - Storm is divided into 2 parts:

- Most Dangerous Semi-circle - side that is right of storm center and direction of path

- LeastDangerous (Navigable) Semi-circle - side that is left of storm center and direction of path

slide6

Northern Hemisphere

Most Dangerous

Quadrant

More Dangerous

Semi-circle

Least Dangerous

Semi-circle

storm avoidance7
Storm Avoidance

6. Safe Passage - in the Northern Hemisphere

- Avoid crossing the “T”: avoid passing in

front of a storm going from Most to

Least Dangerous semi-circle

- Most Dangerous Semi-Circle: Bring the wind on STBD bow, hold course &

make best speed.

storm avoidance8
Storm Avoidance

6. Safe Passage - in the Northern Hemisphere

- Least Dangerous Semi-Circle: Bring the wind on STBD qtr, hold course &

make best speed.

- On Storm Track (ahead): Bring the wind to 160 deg R until a backing is noted in the wind (indicating you are in the Least Dangerous Semi-circle), then bring the wind on STBD quarter, hold course & make best speed.

storm avoidance9
Storm Avoidance

6. Safe Passage - in the Northern Hemisphere

- On Storm Track (behind): Avoid the center by best practical course (southerly).

ship observation reporting
Ship Observation & Reporting

Weather Observations - Ships are required to take regular weather observations:

- Observations taken hourly IAW

NAVOCEANINST.

- Ships in company, OTC may designate one ship to report observations

- In port with no manned weather facility

within 50NM

ship observation reporting12
Ship Observation & Reporting

Synoptic -Formatted weather message:

- Every 6 hours PRIORITY if: surface wind speeds < 33 kts, seas < 12 feet.

- Every 3 hours IMMEDIATE if: surface winds > 33 kts sustained, seas > 12 feet.

- Via plain voice: first indications of a tropical cyclone, unusual or hazardous weather.

ship observation reporting13
Ship Observation & Reporting

Weather Observations -prepared by OOD:

- Type of observation

- Cloud Cover

- Prevailing visibility

- Weather & obstructions to visibility

- Sea level pressure in millibars

ship observation reporting14
Ship Observation & Reporting

Weather Observations -prepared by OOD: (cont.)

- Dry bulb temp in degrees fahrenheit

- Dew point temp in degrees fahrenheit

- True wind direction & speed

- Altimeter setting (if aircraft embarked)

- Remarks

ship observation reporting15
Ship Observation & Reporting

Weather Observations -prepared by OOD: (cont.)

- Station pressure in inches of mercury

- Sea water temp (at sea water injection)

- Sea height, direction and period

- Ice (if applicable)

- Clouds by type, quantity, & height

services available
Services Available
  • Tropical Cyclone Alert

2. High Wind and Sea Warning

3. Local Severe-Storm Warning

4. WEAX

5. OTSR - Optimum Track Ships Routing

weather prediction
Weather Prediction
  • Broadcast WEAX Messages
    • High Seas Warnings
    • Offshore Marine Forecasts
    • Coastal Marine Forecasts
    • OPAREA Forecasts
  • OTSR (Optimum Track Ship Routing)
    • Tailored track recommendations
  • National Data Buoy Collection Center
    • Provides real-time conditions throughout coastal U.S.
weather prediction18
Weather Prediction
  • 42039 PENSACOLA
    • 56 NM South of Panama City, FL
  • Measures:
    • Wind direction, speed
    • Wave height, period
    • Atmos. Pressure
    • Air/Water Temperature
    • Dew Point
weather prediction heuristics
Weather PredictionHeuristics
  • Look for changes in wind direction
    • Veering: clockwise movement
    • Backing: counter-clockwise movement
  • Watch 3 hour trend of barometer
  • Note cloud type and direction
  • Monitor dew point spread
weather prediction heuristics20
Weather PredictionHeuristics
  • Buys Ballot Law
    • To locate High or Low use:
      • Stand with your back to the wind
      • Turn 15º to the right
      • The LOW is on your left, the HIGH on your right
  • Red sky at night … sailor’s delight
  • Red sky at morning ... sailors take warning
review summary
Review/Summary
  • Describe the difference between the dangerous semi-circle and the navigable semi-circle.
  • What is OTSR used for?