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Ternopil State Medical University named I.Horbachevsky Chair of neurology, psychiatry, narcology and medical psychology Prep. by Roksolana Hnatyuk M.D., Ph.D.
Mental retardation, disorders of the personality (psychopathy)
Intelligence - the ability to understand, recall, mobilize and constructively integrate previous learning in meeting new situations.
Dementia is a syndrome characterized by multiple impairments in cognitive functions without impairment in consciousness
Dementia is the loss of mental abilities and most commonly occurs late in life. Of all persons over age 65, 5-8% are demented. This percentage increases considerably with age. Twenty-five to 50% of people over 85 are affected Prevalence of Dementia • Over Age 65 5-8% • Over Age 75 15-20% • Over Age 85 25-50%
The most common form of dementia Alzheimer’s disease, accounts for 50-75% of all cases of dementia. Another 20-30% is due to blood vessel disease ("multi-infarct dementia" or "mini-strokes"). The remaining cases result from a variety of less common disorders
Symptoms and Problems of Dementia The affected person sometimes recognizes the first signs of dementia. Often family or friends first detect the problem. Typical early symptoms include memory loss, and difficulty performing complex tasks. A person may mislay items, become lost while driving, get confused in the middle of a conversation or lose a prior ability to balance a checkbook. As the condition progresses the deficits become more pronounced and interfere further with daily activities (See Table 2)
Symptoms of Dementia (Table 2) • Marked Loss of Memory for Recent Events -Losing items -Getting Lost in ‘familiar’ Places -Missing Appointments • Loss of Ability For Abstract Thought, Planning And Doing Complex Tasks -Trouble with Cooking, Paying Bills, Driving -Can’t Understand Books, Movies or News Items
Symptoms of Dementia (Table 2) • Difficulty Finding Common Words And Names -Substitution of Approximate Phrases ("Where is the thing for sweeping?" for ‘broom’) -Misidentifying People (Confusing sister with [deceased] mother) -Use of "Empty Phrases" ("You know", "That thing") • Difficulty Inhibiting Behavior -Impulsivity, ‘Thoughtless’ Comments, Socially Inappropriate Behaviors
Etiology of oligophrenias: a) Alcoholism of the parents, b) the prenatal factors, c) of a trauma labors, d) disease of early childhood
Psychopathy - is a term derived from the Greek psyche (soul) and pathos (suffering), and was once used to denote any form of mental illness
Etiology of psychopathies: a) Of a harmfulness of period of a conception, b) the prenatal factors, c) disease of early childhood, d) troubles of education types: "an idol of family", "Cinderella", "hyper guardianship", "hypo guardianship"
These days, psychopathy is defined in psychiatry as a condition characterised by lack of empathy or conscience, poor impulse control and manipulative behaviors