Chicano Beginnings = Mexican-American cultural emergence = Political movement and farm worker reform = social protest movment/educational opportunity Today: = Chicano Studies programs = La Raza Advocacy group = Literature / Media. The Chicano Movement.
Reies López Tijerina: land grant movement, New Mexico
Fought to convince the Federal Gov. to honor the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) – return lands taken by treaty to local population.
Affirmation of cultural identity(Aztec myths such as that of Aztlan = mythical Chicano homeland).
1926 - 2009
Founder: Alianza Federal de Pueblos Libres/Federal Alliance of Land Grants NM
Wanted: to reclaim ownership of land b/c
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848 guaranteed Mexican citizens their land.
Tried to use the courts of NM but ruling was:
US Congress has the authority to deal with land rights based on international treaties.
According to Aztecs came from northern Mexico (what today is SW USA)
Establishes a link between Mexican Americans of SW and ancient 'homeland'
Establishes a history for Mexican Americans as distinct from Mexicans & Americans.
organized farm workers in the central valley of California (San Joaquin Valley)
farm worker self determination – right to organize a union and elect representatives
Accomplished by strikes, boycotts, and pilgrimages,
Important: commitment to nonviolence (based on MLK, Gandhi)
high drop out rate,
lack of Mexican American teachers
punishments for speaking Spanish