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Brain and behavior. Mind-body problem will not be solved through science; it is a matter for philosophy Modern physiological psychologists focus on examining the functioning of the brain and nervous systems and how these functions correspond to experience and behavior.

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brain and behavior
Brain and behavior
  • Mind-body problem will not be solved through science; it is a matter for philosophy
  • Modern physiological psychologists focus on examining the functioning of the brain and nervous systems and how these functions correspond to experience and behavior
some history of modern physiological psychology
Some history of modern physiological psychology
  • Period of decline in interest in physiological psychology
    • Behaviorists rejected the need for physiological explanations of behavior
    • Between 1930 and 1950, job prospects for physiological researchers were bleak
  • Wilder Penfield: behavioral effects of brain surgery (1940s-1960s)
donald o hebb 1904 1985
Donald O. Hebb (1904-1985)
  • Studied under Lashley; worked with Penfield
  • Believed childhood experiences were crucial to brain development
    • Cell assemblies
    • Phase sequences
    • Hebb synapses
social psychology begins
Social psychology begins
  • Floyd Allport (1890-1978)
  • Leon Festinger (1919-1989)
    • Cognitive dissonance theory
    • Famous for elaborate research designs creating “experimental reality” for participants
two approaches to psychology
Two approaches to psychology
  • Nomothetic approach: describe principles that are common to human beings in general (cognitive, biological and social psychology all do this)
  • Idiographic approach: describe how one individual differs from another; what makes each of us unique (personality psychology does this)
personality psychology develops
Personality psychology develops
  • Gordon Allport (1897-1967)
  • Popularized the idea of the personality trait, a consistent pattern of thinking, feeling or behaving that distinguishes one person from another
    • Cardinal traits
    • Central traits
    • Secondary traits
developmental psychology jean piaget 1896 1980
Developmental psychology: Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
  • Very bright child; published first scientific article at age of 10!
  • Earned Ph.D. in biology in 1918
  • Interested in philosophical problem of epistemology--how do we obtain knowledge about the world?
  • Worked in Binet’s lab in Paris, testing children’s intelligence
piaget s theories of development
Piaget’s theories of development
  • Children think differently than adults! Difference is qualitative, not quantitative
  • Referred to his approach as “genetic epistemology” (genetic = developmental)
  • Focused on how mental structures (schemata) develop as a child grows
  • Saw children as active participants in their own learning
piaget s stages of development
Piaget’s stages of development
  • Sensory-motor stage
  • Pre-operational stage
  • Concrete operational stage
  • Formal operations stage
a prototypical piaget problem
A prototypical Piaget “problem”
  • Which glass has more milk in it?
development after piaget
Development after Piaget
  • New techniques to study memory, even in infants
  • “Stage” idea giving way to more of an information-processing approach
  • Focus on how children learn strategies for remembering and problem-solving
  • Also greater focus on lifespan development, particularly the issue of aging