Brain-Behavior Relationships - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. http://www.med.harvard.edu/AANLIB/cases/caseNA/pb9.htm Brain-Behavior Relationships

  2. Cerebrum • 85% of Brains Weight • Thinking • Problem Solve • Reason

  3. Cerebellum • Back of the brain • Controls Balance, Movement and Coordination

  4. Brain Stem • Sits beneath the cerebrum and in front of the cerebellum.  • It connects the rest of the brain to the spinal cord. • In charge of all the functions your body needs to stay alive.  • Controls Involuntary Muscles. • Sorts information back and forth.

  5. Hippocampus • Memory • Short Term • Long Term • Transfers Information

  6. Pituitary Gland • Produce and Release Hormones such as growth, puberty, etc • Metabolism

  7. Hypothalamus • Center of the brain • Regulates Temperature

  8. Gross Structures of the Brain • HINDBRAIN • Medulla • Reticular Formation • Pons and Cerebellum

  9. MidBrain • Controls Sensory Processes

  10. Forebrain • Cerbral Hemispheres • Each Hemisphere • Four Lobes • Frontal • Thalamus • Hypothalamus; • and the corpus callosum

  11. Cerebral Hemispheres • Basal Ganglia • 3 main functions • In current usage, the phrase 'basal ganglia' means: the caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus. • Limbic System • 4 structures • Cerebral Cortex

  12. Cortical Connections • Between hemispheres (e.g., corpus callosum) • Within a hemisphere, between one lobe and another (association tracks; e.g., arcuate fasciculus) • Cortex-Subcortical (e.g., internal capsule)

  13. Review of Neuroanatomy (cont.) • Skull and Meninges • Vascular System • Ventricular System and CSF

  14. Cortical Lobes

  15. Cortical Lobes • Occipital: Mediate sight; visual perception; visual knowledge • Parietal: tactile sensations; position sense; spatial relations • Left: sequential. Logical spatial • Right: holistic spatial information

  16. Cortical Lobes (cont.) • Temporal: auditory and olfactory abilities; integrating visual perceptions with other sensory info; new learning; emotion; motivation • Frontal: motor functions, including speech; executive functions; integration of emotional and motivational states

  17. Left Hemisphere Speech and Language Linear Processing Well-routinized codes Details Contralateral attention Positive Emotions Right Hemisphere Prosody, Humor, Non-literal Configural Processing (faces) More adept at novel Global Percepts Global attention Negative Emotions Lateralization of Function

  18. Memory • Amnesia • Immediate vs. Long-term • Remote memory vs. Antereograde memory • Implicit vs. Explicit Memory • Frontal Lobes: role in retrieval and organization • The frontal lobes are the most advanced part of your brain. The frontal lobes are that part of your brain responsible for creativity, logic, intuition, new problem solving, synthesis of ideas, imagination, concepts of time, and planning.

  19. Memory Rehabilitation Attention Encoding Storage Retrieval

  20. Language • Aphasia • Expressive Aphasia • Receptive Aphasia • Distinguish • Psychological Issues

  21. PREFRONTAL CORTEX SYSTEMThe most evolved brain system Functions attention span perseverance planning judgment impulse control organization self-monitoring and supervision problem solving critical thinking forward thinking learning from experience and mistakes ability to feel and express emotions influences the limbic system empathy internal supervision

  22. Dorsolateral Syndrome • “Executive function” deficits • Poor organizational strategies • Poor memory strategies • Working Memory • Impaired set-shifting • Attentional control (distractible)

  23. Orbitofrontal-Ventral PFC Syndrome • Stimulus-Reward Associations • Decision-Making • Appropriate Social Behavior • Phineas Gage

  24. Anterior Cingulate Syndrome • Akinetic Mutism • Apathetic, no spontaneous speech, answer in monosyllables • Display no emotion • Cingulotomy Study

  25. Points to Remember • Individual variation. • Difficulty to develop real-world tasks to assess FL functioning. • Behavioral deficits determined by site, size, laterality, nature of lesion, etc.

  26. Diseases that commonly affect Frontal functioning • Affective Disorders • Depression • Traumatic Brain Injury • Schizophrenia • Some Dementing Illnesses

  27. Traumatic Disorders • Mechanisms of Injury • Primary • Secondary • Initial Assessment of Severity • Glascow Coma Scale • Length of Consciousness • Length of PTA

  28. TBI (cont.) • Treatment • Cognitive and Emotional Effects • Rehabilitation

  29. Neurotransmitters • Excitatory (glutamate) • Inhibitory (GABA) • Neuromodulators (dopamine)

  30. Classes of Psychoactive Medications Neuroleptics (Haldol) Antidepresants (Prozac) Tranquilizers (diazepam or Valium) Stimulants (amphetamine) Time Course and Side Effects