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http://www.med.harvard.edu/AANLIB/cases/caseNA/pb9.htm Brain-Behavior Relationships Cerebrum 85% of Brains Weight Thinking Problem Solve Reason Cerebellum Back of the brain Controls Balance, Movement and Coordination Brain Stem Sits beneath the cerebrum and in front of the cerebellum. 

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cerebrum
Cerebrum
  • 85% of Brains Weight
  • Thinking
  • Problem Solve
  • Reason
cerebellum
Cerebellum
  • Back of the brain
  • Controls Balance, Movement and Coordination
brain stem
Brain Stem
  • Sits beneath the cerebrum and in front of the cerebellum. 
  • It connects the rest of the brain to the spinal cord.
  • In charge of all the functions your body needs to stay alive. 
  • Controls Involuntary Muscles.
  • Sorts information back and forth.
hippocampus
Hippocampus
  • Memory
    • Short Term
    • Long Term
  • Transfers Information
pituitary gland
Pituitary Gland
  • Produce and Release Hormones such as growth, puberty, etc
  • Metabolism
hypothalamus
Hypothalamus
  • Center of the brain
  • Regulates Temperature
gross structures of the brain
Gross Structures of the Brain
  • HINDBRAIN
      • Medulla
      • Reticular Formation
      • Pons and Cerebellum
midbrain
MidBrain
  • Controls Sensory Processes
forebrain
Forebrain
  • Cerbral Hemispheres
  • Each Hemisphere
    • Four Lobes
      • Frontal
      • Thalamus
      • Hypothalamus;
      • and the corpus callosum
cerebral hemispheres
Cerebral Hemispheres
  • Basal Ganglia
    • 3 main functions
    • In current usage, the phrase 'basal ganglia' means: the caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus.
  • Limbic System
    • 4 structures
  • Cerebral Cortex
cortical connections
Cortical Connections
  • Between hemispheres (e.g., corpus callosum)
  • Within a hemisphere, between one lobe and another (association tracks; e.g., arcuate fasciculus)
  • Cortex-Subcortical (e.g., internal capsule)
review of neuroanatomy cont
Review of Neuroanatomy (cont.)
  • Skull and Meninges
  • Vascular System
  • Ventricular System and CSF
cortical lobes15
Cortical Lobes
  • Occipital: Mediate sight; visual perception; visual knowledge
  • Parietal: tactile sensations; position sense; spatial relations
    • Left: sequential. Logical spatial
    • Right: holistic spatial information
cortical lobes cont
Cortical Lobes (cont.)
  • Temporal: auditory and olfactory abilities; integrating visual perceptions with other sensory info; new learning; emotion; motivation
  • Frontal: motor functions, including speech; executive functions; integration of emotional and motivational states
lateralization of function
Left Hemisphere

Speech and Language

Linear Processing

Well-routinized codes

Details

Contralateral attention

Positive Emotions

Right Hemisphere

Prosody, Humor, Non-literal

Configural Processing (faces)

More adept at novel

Global Percepts

Global attention

Negative Emotions

Lateralization of Function
memory
Memory
  • Amnesia
    • Immediate vs. Long-term
    • Remote memory vs. Antereograde memory
    • Implicit vs. Explicit Memory
  • Frontal Lobes: role in retrieval and organization
    • The frontal lobes are the most advanced part of your brain. The frontal lobes are that part of your brain responsible for creativity, logic, intuition, new problem solving, synthesis of ideas, imagination, concepts of time, and planning.
memory rehabilitation
Memory Rehabilitation

Attention

Encoding

Storage

Retrieval

language
Language
  • Aphasia
    • Expressive Aphasia
    • Receptive Aphasia
  • Distinguish
  • Psychological Issues
slide21

PREFRONTAL CORTEX SYSTEMThe most evolved brain system Functions

attention span

perseverance

planning

judgment

impulse control

organization

self-monitoring and supervision

problem solving

critical thinking

forward thinking

learning from experience and mistakes

ability to feel and express emotions

influences the limbic system

empathy

internal supervision

dorsolateral syndrome
Dorsolateral Syndrome
  • “Executive function” deficits
  • Poor organizational strategies
  • Poor memory strategies
  • Working Memory
  • Impaired set-shifting
  • Attentional control (distractible)
orbitofrontal ventral pfc syndrome
Orbitofrontal-Ventral PFC Syndrome
  • Stimulus-Reward Associations
  • Decision-Making
  • Appropriate Social Behavior
    • Phineas Gage
anterior cingulate syndrome
Anterior Cingulate Syndrome
  • Akinetic Mutism
    • Apathetic, no spontaneous speech, answer in monosyllables
    • Display no emotion
  • Cingulotomy Study
points to remember
Points to Remember
  • Individual variation.
  • Difficulty to develop real-world tasks to assess FL functioning.
  • Behavioral deficits determined by site, size, laterality, nature of lesion, etc.
diseases that commonly affect frontal functioning
Diseases that commonly affect Frontal functioning
  • Affective Disorders
    • Depression
  • Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Schizophrenia
  • Some Dementing Illnesses
traumatic disorders
Traumatic Disorders
  • Mechanisms of Injury
    • Primary
    • Secondary
  • Initial Assessment of Severity
    • Glascow Coma Scale
    • Length of Consciousness
    • Length of PTA
tbi cont
TBI (cont.)
  • Treatment
  • Cognitive and Emotional Effects
  • Rehabilitation
neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters
  • Excitatory (glutamate)
  • Inhibitory (GABA)
  • Neuromodulators (dopamine)
classes of psychoactive medications
Classes of Psychoactive Medications

Neuroleptics (Haldol)

Antidepresants (Prozac)

Tranquilizers (diazepam or Valium)

Stimulants (amphetamine)

Time Course and Side Effects