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Chapter 7:4 Skeletal System. Diversified Health Occupations, 7 th edition. Skeletal System. Made of organs called bones Adult human has 206 bones Functions: Bones act as a system to perform the following functions - 1) Framework: to support muscles, fat, and skin

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chapter 7 4 skeletal system

Chapter 7:4Skeletal System

Diversified Health Occupations, 7th edition

skeletal system
Skeletal System
  • Made of organs called bones
  • Adult human has 206 bones
  • Functions: Bones act as a system to perform the following functions -
    • 1) Framework: to support muscles, fat, and skin
    • 2) Protection: surround vital organs and other internal structures
      • Examples: Skull surrounds brain, Ribs surround heart and lungs
functions of bones cont
Functions of bones(cont.)
  • 3) Levers:
    • Muscles attach to bones to provide movement
  • 4) Production of blood cells:
    • Help produce red and white blood cells and platelets
    • Process is called hemopoiesis or hematopoiesis
  • 5) Storage:
    • Supply most of the calcium in the body
    • Also stores phosphorus and fats
  • Exist in a variety of shapes and sizes
    • Long
    • Short
    • Flat
    • Irregular
    • Sesamoid
  • Depends on the locations and function within the body
    • Example –
      • Bones of the extremities are called “long bones”
      • Bones in the skull are “flat bones”
parts of the long bones
Parts of the Long Bones
  • Diaphysis – long part of the bone
  • Epiphysis – ends of the bone
  • Medullary canal – canal in diaphysis that stores bone marrow
  • Endosteum –membrane that lines the medullary canal


long bones continued
Long Bones (continued)
  • Periosteum- membrane that covers outside of bone
    • Contains blood vessels, lymph vessels and osteoblasts (specialized cells that form new bone tissue)
    • Necessary for bone growth, repair and nutrition
  • Articular cartilage
    • Thin layer covers the epiphysis
    • Acts as shock absorber when two bones meet to form a joint
long bones continued1
Long Bones (continued)
  • Yellow marrow – in medullary canal
    • Mainly storage of fat cells
    • Contains cells that form leukocytes (white blood cells)
  • Red marrow – found in certain bones
    • Vertebrae, ribs, sternum, cranium, proximal ends of the humerus and femur
    • Produces red blood cells, platelets and some white blood cells
    • Used in diagnoses of blood diseases
    • Transplanted in people with defective immune systems

Axial Skeleton

  • In main trunk of body
    • Skull
    • Spinal column
    • Ribs
    • Sternum (breastbone)

Appendicular Skeleton

  • Extremities
  • Arm bones
      • Leg bones
  • Shoulder girdle
  • Pelvic girdle
  • Composed of Cranialand Facialbones
  • Sutures – area where cranial bones are joined
  • Sinuses – air spaces in bones of the skull
    • Act as resonating chambers
    • Provides a lighter weight to the skull
  • Foramina (Foramen)
    • Openings in bone that allow nerves and blood vessels to enter and leave the bone
cranial bones
Cranial Bones

Bones of skull that surround and protect the brain

  • Frontal
  • Parietal (2)
  • Temporal (2)
  • Occipital
  • Ethmoid
  • Sphenoid
facial bones
Facial Bones

Bones of skull that form facial features

  • Mandible—lower jaw
  • Maxilla (2)—upper jaw
  • Zygomatic (2)—cheek
  • Nasal (2)—upper part of nose
  • Lacrimal (2)—inner aspect of eye
  • Palatine (2)—hard palate (roof of mouth)
  • Protects the spinal cord
  • Supports head and trunk
  • Spinal column—26 bones
    • Cervical (7)—neck, C1=atlas and C2=axis
    • Thoracic (12)—chest, attach to ribs
    • Lumbar (5)—at waist
    • Sacrum (1)—5 fused bones at back of pelvic girdle
    • Coccyx (1)—tailbone
intervertebral disks
Intervertebral Disks
  • Pads of cartilage separating vertebrae
  • Act as shock absorbers
  • Permit bending and twisting movements
ribs costae
Ribs (costae)
  • 12 pairs of long slender bones
  • Attach to thoracic vertebrae
  • True ribs—first 7 pairs; attach to sternum
  • False ribs—last 5 pairs; do not attach directly to sternum
    • First 3 - attach to cartilage of the rib above on front of the body
    • Last 2 are called “Floating” – they are only attached to the thoracic vertebrae and not to the front of the body
  • Breastbone
  • Consists of 3 parts
    • Manubrium
    • Body
    • Xiphoid Process
  • Attachment of
    • Two clavicles
    • Ribs (attach with cartilage)
shoulder or pectoral girdle
Shoulder or Pectoral Girdle
  • 2 clavicles (collarbones)
  • 2 scapula (shoulder bones)
  • Upper arm bones attach to scapula
bones of the arm
Bones of the Arm
  • Humerus – upper arm
  • Radius – thumb side of forearm
  • Ulna – pinkie side of forearm
  • Carpals – wrist bones
  • Metacarpals – palm of hand
  • Phalanges- fingers
bones of pelvic girdle
Bones of Pelvic Girdle

Consists of 2 oscoxae(hip bones)

  • Each one is made of 3 fused sections:
    • Ilium
    • Ischium
    • Pubis
pelvic girdle cont
Pelvic Girdle (cont.)
  • Symphysis pubis (joint between pubic bones)
  • Acetabulum (socket for attachment of head of femur)
  • Obturator foramen (opening for passage of nerves and blood vessels to and from the legs)
bones of the legs
Bones of the Legs
  • Femur – upper leg
  • Patella - kneecap
  • Tibia –medial side of lower leg, weight bearing
  • Fibula – lower leg
  • Tarsals (7) - ankle
    • Calcaneus heelbone)
    • Talus – tibia sits on
  • Metatarsals - sole
  • Phalanges - toes
  • Area where two or more bones join
  • Ligaments – bands of connective tissue that hold long bones together at the joints
  • Three main types of joints:
    • Diarthrosis or synovial –freely movable
    • Amphiarthrosis –slightly movable
    • Synarthrosis - immovable

Examples of joints:

  • Diarthrosis:
    • Ball and socket
    • Hinge
  • Amphiarthrosis:
    • Attachment of ribs to thoracic vertebrae
    • Symphysis pubis-joint between 2 pelvic bones
  • Synarthrosis:
    • Suture joints of cranium
diseases and abnormal conditions
Diseases and Abnormal Conditions
  • Arthritis – a group of diseases involving inflammation of the joints.
two main types of arthritis
Two main types of arthritis
  • More common form
  • Chronic disease that usually occurs as a result of aging
  • Frequently affects hips and knees
  • Symptoms – joint pain, stiffness, limited range of motion
  • Chronic disease
  • Affects the connective tissue and joints
  • 3x more common in women, onset age 35-45
  • Progressive attacks cause scar tissue formation and atrophy of bone and muscle
  • Can result in permanent deformity and immobility


Rheumatoid arthritis

arthritis cont
Arthritis (cont.)
  • No cure exists
  • Remedies are used to relieve the symptoms:
    • Rest,
    • Applications of heat and cold,
    • Anti-inflammatory medications,
    • Injection of steroids into the joints,
    • Special exercises
  • Surgery, or arthroplasty, is used to repair or replace damaged joints

Bursitis – inflammation of the bursae, which are small, fluid-filled sacs surrounding the joints.

  • Frequently affects the shoulders, elbows, hips, or knees

Treatment includes pain meds, aspiration of fluid and injection of steroids and anesthetics into the joint. Rest and physical therapy preserve joint motion.


Dislocation- occurs when a bone is forcibly displaced from a joint.

Once it is reduced (bone replaced in the joint), the joint is immobilized with a splint, cast, or traction.


Sprain – when a twisting action tears ligaments at a joint

    • Treatment includes rest, elevation, ice and compression
  • Osteomyelitis– bone inflammation caused by a pathogenic organism
    • Causes abscess within bone and accumulation of pus in medullary canal
    • Antibiotics given to treat infection
diseases and abnormal conditions continued
Diseases and Abnormal Conditions(continued)
  • Osteoporosis
    • Increased porosity , or softening of bones
    • Caused by hormone deficiency , prolonged lack of calcium in the diet, sedentary lifestyle
diseases and abnormal conditions continued1
Diseases and Abnormal Conditions(continued)
  • Ruptured disk
    • Or “Herniated” or “slipped disk”
  • Symptoms
    • Severe pain, muscle spasm, impaired movement, and/or numbness
  • Treatment
    • Analgesics, anti-inflammatory and muscle relaxant meds
    • Rest, traction, PT, heat or cold applications
    • Surgery (laminectomy)
diseases abnormal conditions
Diseases & Abnormal Conditions
  • Abnormal curvature of spine
    • Kyphosis – abnormal bowing of the spine at the thoracic area (“hunchback”)
    • Scoliosis – lateral curvature of the back
    • Lordosis – abnormal inward curvature of the lumbar region (“swayback”)
  • A crack or break in a bone
  • Types of fractures include:
    • Greenstick- incomplete break
    • Simple or closed – does not project through skin
    • Compound or open – projects through skin
    • Complete – break across entire section of bone
    • Incomplete – break involves a partial break, sections of bone partially attached
    • Comminuted- bone is broken into many pieces
  • Impacted – broken ends of bone push into each other
  • Transverse – fracture at right angle to bone’s long axis
  • Oblique – fracture occurs at a diagonal to the longitudinal axis
  • Linear – fracture line parallel to long axis of bone
  • Spiral – twisted break spiraling in bone
  • Depressed – fracture resulting in indentation of bone
  • Colles – fracture at wrist in the distal portion of the radius, usually from falling on an outstretched hand
signs symptoms of a fracture
Signs/Symptoms of a Fracture
  • Swelling &/or redness at area of injury
  • Deformity
  • Shortened limb, or improper angulation
  • Crepitus
  • Loss of sensation and/or pulse distal to injury
initial treatment of long bone fracture
Initial Treatment of Long-Bone Fracture
  • Call 911
  • Protect any open wound from possible infection
  • Stabilize and immobilize the injury
  • Wait for help
treatment procedures
Treatment Procedures
  • Fractures
    • Manipulation
    • Traction
    • Immobilization
    • External Fixation
    • Internal Fixation
Photos -
  • WARNING - Some may be graphic!