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Use of Ultrasound for Bedside Examinations and Common Procedures. Philip K. Ng, MD Mark J. Ault, MD, FACEP. Agenda for Today. It’s a tag team!! Introduction: Dr. Philip Ng The Ultrasound Revolution: Dr. Mark Ault

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Use of Ultrasound for Bedside Examinations and Common Procedures


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use of ultrasound for bedside examinations and common procedures

Use of Ultrasound for Bedside Examinations and Common Procedures

Philip K. Ng, MD Mark J. Ault, MD, FACEP

agenda for today
Agenda for Today

It’s a tag team!!

  • Introduction: Dr. Philip Ng
  • The Ultrasound Revolution: Dr. Mark Ault
  • Hands on Practical with Training Model Demonstration

Let’s get started!!

advantages of ultrasound
Advantages of Ultrasound
  • Widely available
  • Portable
  • Non-invasive
  • Able to provide serial\repeat examinations
  • Provides immediate diagnostic information not easily obtained by physical examination
  • Allows for guided placement of intravascular or drainage catheters
hand carried ultrasound
Hand Carried Ultrasound
  • Bedside physical examination can be limited in diagnosis of cardiopulmonary, intra-abdominal and vascular pathology, especially when anatomic challenges exist as body habitus or critical illness
  • Goal is not to replace formal ultrasound studies for imaging.
  • An extension to the physical examination.
uses of ultrasound
Uses of Ultrasound
  • Application for Internists, Hospitalists, and Intensivists
    • Bedside Examination: Screening and Diagnosis
      • Office
      • Hospital
      • Intensive Care Unit
    • Guidance for Common Procedures
uses of ultrasound cont
Uses of Ultrasound (cont)
  • Screening and Diagnosis
    • Vascular
      • Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening
      • Carotid Intimal-medial thickness
    • Cardiac
    • Genito-Urinary
    • Body Cavity fluid
    • Pulmonary
      • Pneumothorax
    • Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST)
    • Upper airway assessment
    • Optic nerve assessment
uses of ultrasound cont7
Uses of Ultrasound (cont)
  • Guidance for Common Procedures
    • Vascular
      • Internal Jugular Vein
      • Femoral Vein
      • Axillary Vein
      • Peripheral Veins
      • Accessory or Alternative Routes
      • Arterial Cannulation
    • Cavity Drainage
      • Thoracentesis
      • Paracentesis
      • Pericardiocentesis
      • Abscess Drainage
uses of ultrasound cont8
Uses of Ultrasound (cont)
  • Guidance for Common Procedures
    • Solid Organ Biopsy
      • Thyroid
      • Liver
      • Kidney
    • Musculoskeletal
      • Joint space aspiration
      • Soft tissue injection
    • Novel applications
      • Lumbar Puncture
      • Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheostomy
ultrasound guidance of procedures
Ultrasound Guidance of Procedures
  • Complications of central line placement have been reported in up to 15-20% of cases.
  • Use of ultrasound guidance reported to decrease mechanical complication rates
    • Ultrasound can help localize and define the anatomy with subsequent placement by standard use of anatomic landmarks
    • Real-time 2-D ultrasound guidance to locate the vessel and subsequently introduce the needle
limitations to bedside ultrasound
Limitations to Bedside Ultrasound
  • Acoustic Window
    • Sound is reflected from tissue interfaces
    • Structures hindering the reflection of the acoustic signal will interfere with ultrasound transmission and therefore diminish the quality of the examination
      • Air
        • Pneumothorax
        • Emphysema with hyperinflation
      • Bone
      • Foreign objects
        • Wounds with dressings
      • Increased distance to object of study
        • Obesity
        • Positioning
        • Patient cooperation
limitations to bedside ultrasound cont
Limitations to Bedside Ultrasound (cont)
  • Interpretation of Image
    • Knowledge of anatomy
    • Knowledge of instruments
      • Gain control
      • Depth adjustment
      • Transducer choice
      • Transducer placement and orientation
  • Point of emphasis
    • Bedside ultrasound examination should be an extension of the physical examination and not a replacement of formal ultrasound examination
hands on practical with training model demonstration
Hands on Practical with Training Model Demonstration
  • Simulator training with phantom models for diagnostic evaluation
  • Simulator training with ultrasound guided central venous catheter placement
  • Simulator training with cavity drainage catheters
  • Hands on practical with hand carried ultrasound units
references
References
  • Beaulieu Y, Marik P. Bedside Ultrasonography in the ICU (parts I and II). Chest Aug 2005 and Sept 2005, respectively
  • Kirkpatrick A. Clinician-performed focused sonography for the resuscitation of trauma. Crit Care Med 2007 Vol.35, No. 5 (Suppl.)
  • Sustic A. Role of ultrasound in the airway management of critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 2007 Vol 35, No. 5 (Suppl.)
  • Hind D, et al. Ultrasonic locating devices for central venous cannulation: meta-analysis. BMJ Aug 16, 2003 Vol 327
references cont
References (cont)
  • Feller-Kopman D. Ultrasound-Guided Thoracentesis. Chest/129/6June,2006.
  • Maecken T; Grau T. Ultrasound imaging in vascular access. Crit Care Med 2007 Vol. 35, No.5 (Suppl.)
  • Louis L. Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Intervention: Principles and Advances. Radiologic Clinics of North America Vol 46, Issue 3 (May 2008)