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Training and Q&A. Florida Law Review 2007 Write-On Competition. During tonight’s meeting, we’ll:. Get you acquainted with the layout of the Bluebook (BB) Provide general guidance on how to use the BB Address difficult and tricky citation rules

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Training and Q&A

Florida Law Review

2007 Write-On Competition

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During tonight’s meeting, we’ll:

  • Get you acquainted with the layout of the Bluebook (BB)

  • Provide general guidance on how to use the BB

  • Address difficult and tricky citation rules

  • Answer any questions you may have about using the BB, the practice test, or the Write-On Competition in general

Feel free to ask questions throughout the presentation!

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Layout of the Bluebook

  • First, be sure you’re using the 18th edition!

  • Front cover

    • Quick reference for Law Review footnotes

  • Bluepages (pg 3-43)

    • Abbreviated intro to the rules w/ tips and references to rules

  • Full text of complete rules

  • Tables

    • Used in conjunction w/ the rules

  • Index

    • Very comprehensive


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Using the Bluebook

  • First- ask: What type of source is this?

    • Common sources include:

      • Cases (R. 10)

      • Statutes (R. 12)

      • Legislative Material (R. 13)

      • Books & Reports (R. 15)

      • Periodicals (R. 16)

        • Law Reviews/Journals

        • Newspapers

      • Electronic Media (Internet) (R. 18)

    • If you’re not sure…look it up in the Index!

      • Blue text = example of citation

      • Black text = explanation of how to cite it

Hmm…how do I cite the Restatement (2d) of Torts?

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Using the Bluebook

  • Then- Find the right set of rules using the Front Cover, Index, or Table of Contents

    • The set of rules will:

      • Begin with a few citation examples that give the proper typeface and spacing

      • Walk you through the different parts of the basic, full citation format for that source

      • Refer you to relevant tables

      • Give you the proper short citation form

        • NOTE: This is usually the last rule in the set!!

    • The rules are very detailed so remember to read closely!!

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Tips for Tricky Citations

  • Next, we’ll discuss specific rules related to:

    • Cases

    • Statutes

    • Books & Periodicals

    • Internet sources

  • As well as rules that apply:

    • To all sources

    • In the text of the article, the footnote, or a parenthetical

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Tips for Cases

  • Proper abbreviation for case names

    • Abbreviate ANY word in the case name that is listed in Table 6 (pg. 335-37)—when in doubt, look it up!!

  • Selection of the correct reporter

    • Find the correct jurisdiction in Table 1. It will tell you which reporter to cite.

  • Proper numerical abbreviations – R. 6.2(b)

    • “Second” = 2d NOT 2nd and “Third” = 3d NOT 3rd

    • Do NOT use superscript text in footnotes (ex: 1st not 1st) so undo it if your computer automatically does it for you.

  • Correct spacing for reporter names – R. 6.1(a)

    • Close up adjacent single capitals (ex: S.D.N.Y.)

      • Individual numbers are treated as single capitals (ex: F.3d)

    • Do NOT close up single capitals w/ longer abbreviations (ex: D. Mass)

    • Insert a space adjacent to any abbreviation containing two or more letters (ex: So. 2d and F. Supp. 2d)

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Tips for Cases

  • Italics – R. 2.1(a)

    • Do NOT italicize full case name in footnote but DO italicize short form of case name and the case name in the text

    • Always italicize procedural phrases, such as en banc, In re, ex rel., etc.

  • Cases w/ multiple dispositions – R. 10.2.1(k)

    • Use full case name in citation but put identifier of the number of the decision parenthetically in italics

      • Ex: Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (Hamdi III)

    • Once it has been cited as such, the case can then be referred to using this numerical identifier

  • Dissenting/Concurring opinions – R. 10.9(b)

    • Provide the dissenting or concurring judge’s name in parenthetical after the case citation

    • For multiple cites in a row to the same opinion, you do NOT have to include another parenthetical until it switches to a different opinion

      • Gators v. Buckeyes, 84 So. 2d 75, 90 (Fla. 2007) (Oden, J., dissenting)

      • Id. at 98.

      • Id. at 80 (Meyer, J., concurring).

      • Id. at 75 (majority opinion).

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Tips for Statutes

  • U.S.C. versus U.S.C.A. or U.S.C.S. – R. 12.2.1(a)

    • Only cite to the U.S.C.A. or U.S.C.S. if the federal law was enacted after the most recent edition of the U.S.C.

      • Most recent edition of U.S.C. is 2000 – the 2006 version is not yet published.

  • Section symbols

    • Always include a space between the section symbol and the statute number

      • 28 U.S.C. § 1291 (2000).

    • When citing to multiple sections in a statute, use two section symbols

      • 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601-9675 (2000).

  • Public law number – R. 12.2.2(b)

    • Only use the public law number from the session laws when citing to the historical fact of the statute’s enactment, amendment, or repeal

      • Can put reference to the current USC version in parenthetical

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Tips for Books & Periodicals

  • Small caps – R. 2.1(b)-(c)

    • Books: Author’s name and title of book

    • Periodicals: Title of periodical only

      • Look up proper abbreviation of periodical in Table 13 (pg. 349-72)!

        • If the title is not listed, then abbreviate the individual words as indicated in either Table 13 or Table 10.

  • Essay in larger collection – R. 15.5.1

    • If the author is citing to an article, but the article is actually an essay in a collection, cite the article’s author and title as you would for any other journal article, but then you follow normal rules for citing a book compiled by an editor.

      • David L. Boren, A Recipe for the Reform of Congress, in THE CONSTITUTION AND CAMPAIGN FINANCE REFORM 35, 35 (Frederick G. Slabach ed., 2d ed. 2006).

        • Be sure to italicize the “in”!

        • No comma b/t editor’s last name and “ed.”!

        • Note: The book’s title should be small caps, not all caps—I just couldn’t get power point to cooperate w/ the font…

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Tips for Internet Sources

  • Parallel vs Direct citations – R. 18.2.2 & 18.2.3

    • Determine if internet source is a parallel citation or a direct citation

      • Parallel = If source is also available in traditional print format but is more easily accessed online, then use “available at”

        • Paige M. Harrison & Allen J. Beck, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Dep’t of Justice, Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2005 (2005), available at pjim05.pdf.

      • Direct = If source does NOT exist in a traditional printed format or it exists but cannot be found or is so obscure that it is practically unavailable, then do NOT use “available at”

        • If unprinted source is analogous to a printed source, then use the typeface conventions for the printed source. If there is no analogous printed source, then do not use any special typefaces

          • Douglas Gantenbein, Mad Cows Come Home, SLATE, Jan. 5, 2004,

        • If material is undated, then include the date that the website was last visited

          •, Men’s Basketball, (last visited Apr. 7, 2007).

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Tips for All Sources

  • Quotation format – R. 5.1

    • More than 50 words = block quotation w/ left and right indentation and no quotation marks

  • Ellipsis – R. 5.3

    • If omitting part of a quote, insert an ellipsis ( . . . ) with space before the first and after the last period

    • Ellipsis should never begin a quotation

    • See rule for specifics on using ellipsis in different parts of quotation

  • Emphasis – R. 5.2(d)

    • If emphasis is either added or omitted from a quotation, indicate this in a parenthetical following the citation. But, do NOT indicate emphasis if it is included in the original.

    • Use italics to indicate emphasis.

      • “Joakim Noah remembers the critics. . . . How could you turn down all the money that goes to the top pick in the NBA draft?”

        • Andy Staples, Gators Repeat Mantra: Returning Was Right Move, TAMPA TRIB., Apr. 4, 2007, at A1 (emphasis added).

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Tips for All Sources

  • Page numbers – R. 3.2

    • When citing a range of pages, only provide the last two numbers in the range (drop any repetitive digits)

      • Ex: 132-35 NOT 132-135. But 198-201 is okay.

  • Rule of Five – R. 10.9(a)

    • Only use a case’s short form if the case has been cited (in either its full or short form) in one of the five preceding footnotes

      • Gators v. Buckeyes, 84 So. 2d 75, 75 (Fla. 2007).

      • Id. at 76.

      • Andy Staples, Gators Repeat Mantra: Returning Was Right Move, TAMPA TRIB., Apr. 4, 2007, at A1.

      • Id.

      • Id.

      • Id.

      • Gators, 84 So. 2d at 78.

  • Infra & Supra – R. 4.2

    • Use supra as the short form citation for an article or book.

      • Boren, supra note 6, at 36.

    • Also use supra and infra to cite to earlier or later parts of the actual article.

      • See supra notes 10-11 and accompanying text.

      • See infra Part II.A.

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Tips for Text

These tips apply for the text of the actual article, the footnote, or a parenthetical.

  • Numbers – R. 6.2(a)

    • Spell out numbers zero to ninety-nine and round numbers (ex: hundred)

  • Capitalization – R. 8

    • Very specific so check R. 8(b)

  • Speaking parentheticals – R. 1.5(a)

    • When explaining something related to the source in a parenthetical following the cite, always start with a present participle in lower case (ex: arguing that…)

    • When quoting one or more full sentences, then start with a capital letter (ex: “[T] Florida Gators own the Ohio State Buckeyes.”)

  • Signals – R. 1.2 – 1.4

    • Review R. 1.2 for the meaning of different signals (ex: see vs accord).

    • When a footnote uses multiple signals, the signals must be in the order in which they appear in R. 1.2

    • When multiple sources follow a signal, the sources must be in the order given by R. 1.4.