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The Science behind the Earthquake and Tsunami of Dec. 26, 2004 Rob McCaffrey Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute STANYS Conference Nov. 7, 2005 Largest Known Quakes 2005 Nias Kuala Lumpur 2004 (9.3) Aceh Singapore 1892 (7.6) 1866 (8.5) Sumatra 2005 (8.7) Jakarta 1833 (9)

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the science behind the earthquake and tsunami of dec 26 2004

The Science behind the Earthquake and Tsunami of Dec. 26, 2004

Rob McCaffrey

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

STANYS Conference Nov. 7, 2005

slide4

Kuala Lumpur

2004 (9.3)

Aceh

Singapore

1892 (7.6)

1866 (8.5)

Sumatra

2005 (8.7)

Jakarta

1833 (9)

Bock et al., AGU, 2005.

slide8

2005

1989

slide9

Velocities from 1991-2004

Mw 9.23 Dec 26, 2004

Mw 8.7 Mar 28, 2005

Bock et al., AGU, 2005.

slide13

Slip distribution of Dec 2004 quake

from seismic waves

from surface displacements (40 days later)

Data from Subarya et al., Nature, in press, 2005.

slide14

Survey mode GPS coseismic displacements – December 26 earthquake

Data from Subarya et al., Nature, in press, 2005.

slide15

All of northern

Sumatra moved by about 3 meters or more!

Data from Subarya et al., Nature, in press, 2005.

slide16

At southern end of slip region, lifting and extreme tilting of the island indicates the edge of the slip area is abrupt.

Data from Subarya et al., Nature, in press, 2005.

slide17

Simeulue

NIAS

2005 quake mostly deeper and

beneath land (Nias)

Simeulue

NIAS

Data from Subarya et al., Nature, in press, 2005.

slide18

Kuala Lumpur

2004 (9.2)

Aceh

Singapore

2005 (8.7)

1866 (8.5)

Sumatra

Jakarta

1833 (9)

?

Bock et al., AGU, 2005.

slide19

Mechanical Barriers to Seismic Rupture

India Plate

Australia Plate

Sieh and Natawidjaja, 2000

slide21

Wave speed proportional to ( g h )1/2

(g = gravity, h = wave height)

By conservation of energy, wave height proportional to h-1/4

The top of the wave outruns the bottom!

slide24

Normal tide gauge record

Record with passing tsunami

us pacific northwest
US Pacific Northwest

Offshore Oregon and Washington there sits a loaded subduction zone similar to the Sumatra subduction zone.

slide31

Sumatra fault area superimposed

on US Pacific Northwest