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The Development of Developmental Science Arnold Sameroff SRCD April, 2009 Metaphors and Models Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited to all we now know . . ., while imagination embraces all there ever will be to know. Albert Einstein

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the development of developmental science

The Development of Developmental Science

Arnold Sameroff

SRCD

April, 2009

metaphors and models
Metaphors and Models

Imagination is more important than knowledge.

Knowledge is limited to all we now know . . ., while imagination embraces all there ever will be to know.

Albert Einstein

development of development

Development of Development

Historical Framing Issues

Parke

Integrating Multiple Disciplines

Integrating Research and Practice

Huston

Integrating Research and Policy

Sameroff

Integrating Nature and Nurture

slide4

?

Y

X

SuccessfulAdulthood

Babies

slide5

NATURE

Y

X

NURTURE

Adult

Success

Infancy

development of nature nurture as an organizing construct
Development of Nature-Nurture as an Organizing Construct
  • Triggered by child with problem
    • Popular: Who is to blame?
    • Empirical: Which is it?
      • It’s both
  • But, how is it both?
    • Interactional: Deterministic/Percentages
      • Add up static entities
    • Transactional: Probablistic/Odds
      • Disentangle dynamic systems
rough history of nature nurture
1880’s-1940’s—Nature

Inherited Individual Differences

Instincts

1920’s-50’s—Nurture

Reinforcement Theory

Psychoanalytic Theory

1960’s-70’s—Nature

Ethology—Species Differences

Behavioral Genetics

Cognitive Revolution

1980’s-90’s—Nurture

Poverty

Social Ecology

Cultural Deconstruction

2000’s-10’s—Nature

Molecular Biology

Neuroscience

What do you notice?

Cycling of Explanations

Each step seen as closing the argument!

However, each step leaves most of the variance unexplained

Explanation of Cycling

Tied to technological advances

Tied to theoretical advances

Is it linear historical progress?

Is it phenomena in itself?

Rough History of Nature-Nurture
non linear models of cycling change development
Non-Linear Models of Cycling/Change/Development
  • Dialectics
  • Developmental Helix
  • Differentiation & Hierarchic Integration
dialectics 1
Dialectics 1

Everything is composed of opposites

(Yin-Yang not completely opposite)

dialectics 2 opposites mutually constitute each other
Dialectics 2 Opposites mutually constitute each other

Unity of opposites

COGNITION and WORLD

Without the world there would be nothing to cognize

Without cognition there would be no world for us

Interpenetration of opposites

One’s cognition leads to one’s action in the world

One’s action in the world becomes part of one’s cognition

W

Cognition

World

C

dialectics 2 nature and nurture mutually constitute each other
Dialectics 2 Nature and Nurture Mutually Constitute Each Other

Unity of opposites

Both required for development

Interpenetration of opposites

Nature changes one’s nurture

Nurture changes one’s nature

Nu

Nature

Nurture

Na

dialectics 2 nature and nurture mutually constitute each other12
Dialectics 2:Nature and Nurture Mutually Constitute Each Other

Galton (1876) Matt McGue

“nature prevails enormously over nurture when the differences of nurture do not exceed what is commonly to be found among persons of the same rank in society and in the same country ”

Watson (1914)

“effectiveness of habit training would be facilitated by knowledge of an animal’s individual instinctive responses”

Nu

Nature

Nurture

Na

dialectics 3 the helix developmental change moves in spirals
Dialectics 3: The HelixDevelopmental change moves in spirals

Developmental Helix

Day-Night

Representations

Relationships

dialectics 4 development is differentiation and integration

Integration

Dialectics 4:Development is Differentiation and Integration

Orthogenetic Principle

“Wherever development occurs it proceeds from a state of relative globality and lack of differentiation to a state of increasing differentiation, articulation, and hierarchic integration.”

Heinz Werner

Differentiation

gre gateway to graduate school
GRE Gateway to Graduate School

Sample Question

Science advances in a widening spiral in that each new conceptual scheme embraces the phenomena explained by its predecessors and adds to those explanations.

developmental helix

Integration

Developmental Helix

Differentiation of Nature

Behavioral Differences

Neurological Differences

Biochemical Differences

Genomic Differences

Epigenomic Differences

Differentiation

developmental helix17

Integration

Developmental Helix

Differentiation of Nurture

Mother Love

Reinforcements

Social Class

Social Ecology

Social Deconstruction

Differentiation

developmental double helix

Integrating

Developmental Double Helix

Combining

NatureandNurture

  • Differentiating
  • Integrating
  • Alternating Ascendance
    • Based on advances in technology/theory

Differentiating

getting to the point history of developmental psychology

Integration

Getting to the PointHistory of Developmental Psychology

1880’s-30’s—Nature

1930’s-50’s—Nurture

1960’s-70’s—Nature

1980’s-90’s—Nurture

2000’s-10’s—Nature

2010’s-20’s—???

Ascending

accepting development to understand development21
Accepting development to understand development

Proposition 1:

Cycling will continue until either the nature or nurture position gets it right.

Problem of Multifinality and Equifinality

Same Individual Characteristics often lead to Different Outcomes

Different Individual Characteristics often lead to Same Outcomes

Limiting factor in each cycle is unexplained variance

accepting development to understand development22
Accepting development to understand development

Proposition 2:

Nature-Nurture is a Unity of Opposites.

Neither can ever get it right.

Changes in our understanding of nurture illuminate nature

Changes in our understanding of nature illuminates nurture

If opposites represent a unity, what is the unity of nature and nurture?

big question
BIG QUESTION:

Can there be a

Unified Theory of Development?

four requirements for a unified theory of development
Four Requirements for aUnified Theory of Development
  • Personal Change Model
  • Contextual Model
  • Regulation Model
  • Representational Model
1 personal change model

INFANCY

CHILDHOOD

ADOLESCENCE

ADULTHOOD

1. Personal Change Model

Trait

DEVELOPMENT

  • TIME
1 personal change model26

INFANCY

CHILDHOOD

ADOLESCENCE

ADULTHOOD

1. Personal Change Model

Growth

DEVELOPMENT

  • TIME
1 personal change model27

INFANCY

CHILDHOOD

ADOLESCENCE

ADULTHOOD

1. Personal Change Model

ADULTHOOD

Development

ADOLESCENCE

DEVELOPMENT

CHILDHOOD

INFANCY

  • TIME
1 personal change model28
1. Personal Change Model

INFANCY

CHILDHOOD

ADOLESCENCE

ADULTHOOD

FORMAL

Piaget

CONCRETE

DEVELOPMENT

PREOP

SEN. MOT.

  • TIME
1 personal change model29
1. Personal Change Model

INFANCY

CHILDHOOD

ADOLESCENCE

ADULTHOOD

MASTER

(10,000 Hrs.)

Expertise

EXPERT

DEVELOPMENT

ADEPT

NOVICE

  • TIME
requirements for a unified theory of development
Requirements for aUnified Theory of Development
  • Personal Change Model
  • Contextual Model
  • Regulation Model
  • Representational Model
2 contextual model

GEOPOLITICAL

COMMUNITY

FAMILY

PARENT

CHILD

SCHOOL

PEERS

CHILD

2. Contextual Model
slide32
PhiladelphiaAdolescent Development Study.Frank Furstenburg, Thomas Cook, Jacque Eccles, Glen Elder, & Todd Bartko
  • 500 11- to 14-year olds
  • Urban Setting
  • Multiple Outcomes
  • Multiple Contextual Risks
20 contextual risk and promotive factors
20 Contextual Risk and Promotive Factors

Proximal

  • Parent-Child Interaction
  • Parent Personality
  • Family Structure & Economy
  • Family Management
  • Peers
  • School
  • Community

Distal

slide34

Mental Health

Self

Self

Self

Self

-

-

-

-

Competence

Competence

Competence

Competence

Problem Behavior

Problem Behavior

Problem Behavior

Problem Behavior

Activity Involvement

Activity Involvement

Activity Involvement

Activity Involvement

Academic Performance

Academic Performance

Academic Performance

Academic Performance

1.2

1.2

0.9

0.9

0.6

0.6

0.3

0.3

Competence

Competence

0

0

-

-

0.3

0.3

-

-

0.6

0.6

-

-

0.9

0.9

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

7

7

8

8

9

9

Risk Factors

Risk Factors

slide35

1.2

1.2

Mental Health

Self

Self

Self

Self

-

-

-

-

Competence

Competence

Competence

Competence

0.9

0.9

Problem Behavior

Problem Behavior

Problem Behavior

Problem Behavior

0.6

0.6

Activity Involvement

Activity Involvement

Activity Involvement

Activity Involvement

Academic Performance

Academic Performance

Academic Performance

Academic Performance

0.3

0.3

Competence

Competence

0

0

-

-

0.3

0.3

-

-

0.6

0.6

-

-

0.9

0.9

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

7

7

8

8

9

9

10

10

11

11

12

12

13+

13+

Promotive

Factors

requirements for a unified theory of development36
Requirements for aUnified Theory of Development
  • Personal Change Model
  • Contextual Model
  • Regulation Model
  • Representational Model
3 regulation model
3. RegulationModel

Other-Regulation

Self-Regulation

Development

developmental regulation
Developmental Regulation

Self

Others

Parenting

Schooling

Medicine

Legal System

Physiological

Emotional

Behavioral

Attentional

early mental health study group
Early Mental Health Study Group

CASBS

Robert Emde

Daniel Stern

Alan Sroufe

Thomas Anders

Arthur Parmelee

Herbert Liederman

David Reiss

Question:

At what age can an individual be given a psychiatric diagnosis?

Can babies have MH diagnoses?

early mental health study group40
Early Mental Health Study Group

Winnicott (1960)

“There is no such thing as a baby”

Study Group (1989)

“There is no psychopathology in the infant . . .disorder can only be found in the infant-caregiver relationship.”

Nosology

Parent-Infant Regulation Disorders

Development

When is self trans-situational?

rochester longitudinal study
Infancy

Arnold Sameroff

Melvin Zax

Early Childhood

Ronald Seifer

Ralph Barocas

Adolescence

Alfred Baldwin

Clare Baldwin

Tim Kasser

Adulthood

Katherine Rosenblum

Lisa Slominski

Rochester Longitudinal Study
rls contextual risks
Child - Parent

Parent

Family

Social

Child-Parent Interaction

Developmental Knowledge

Parent Psychiatric History

Parent Anxiety

Education

HH Occupation

Family Size

Single Parent

Stressful Life Events

Minority Status

RLS Contextual Risks
slide43

4-Year Multiple Contextual Risk Predicting

30-Year Mental Health (GAF)

Good Functioning

slide44

4-Year Multiple Contextual Risk Predicting

30-Year Educational Attainment

BA

HS

slide47

18-Year Mental Health

Predicting to 30-Year Mental Health (PIRS)

4

18-Year MH

High

Low

3

30-Yr. Mental Health

2

0

1

2

3

4+

18-Year Social Risk

slide48

18-Year IQ

Predicting to 30-Year Educational Attainment

18-Year IQ

BA

HS

3a transactional regulation model
3a. Transactional RegulationModel

Other-Regulation

Self-Regulation

Development

slide52

How Bill Gates Became a Success

Gates

Genius

Gazillionaire

time

slide53

How Bill Gates Became a Success

Private

Middle School

Software

Firms

Context

Right Time

Right Place

Bored

Genius

Computer

Geek

10,000 Hours

Programming

Ericsson

Gates

Gazillionaire

time

early childhood longitudinal study ecls k
Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K)

Physical Punishment and Child Externalizing Behavior Analyses

Collaborators

Elizabeth Gershoff

Jenifer Lansford

Holly Sexton

Pamela Davis-Kean

early childhood longitudinal study ecls k56
Early Childhood Longitudinal Study ECLS-K

Kindergarten Class of 1998-99

Nationally Representative (N=21,260)

Wave 1 (1999) Kindergarten

Wave 2 (2002) 3rd Grade

Methods

Caregivers Parenting Phone Interviews

Teacher Child Behavior Questionnaires

Current Study Focus

Parent Punishment and Child Externalizing

slide57

Parent Punitive

.13***

Parent Punitive

.11***

.05*

.10**

.46***

Child

Externalizing

Child

Externalizing

KG

3rd Grade

SRCD Symposium—Saturday 2:20pm

requirements for a unified theory of development59
Requirements for aUnified Theory of Development
  • Personal Change Model
  • Contextual Model
  • Regulation Model
  • Representational Model
representation are not reality but the interpretation of reality
Representation are Not Reality But the Interpretation of Reality
  • Cognitive Representations
    • Putting external world inside
  • Social Representations
    • Working Models
  • Cultural Representations
    • Ethnicity
    • Social Class
  • Developmental Theories
infant temperament project ronald seifer lisa barrett elizabeth krafchuk
Infant Temperament ProjectRonald Seifer, Lisa Barrett, & Elizabeth Krafchuk
  • 120 mothers
  • Videotape 10 Minute Interaction
      • Mother & Own Infant
      • 6 Unfamiliar Mothers & Infants
  • Ratings using same Temperament Scale
      • Mother rates Own Infant
      • Mother rates 6 Unfamiliar Infants
      • Trained Observer Rates all Infants
mother observer correlations own infants
Mother-Observer Correlations Own Infants

Seifer, Sameroff, Barrett, L.C., & Krafchuk, E. (1994)

mother observer correlations unfamiliar infants
Mother-Observer Correlations Unfamiliar Infants

Seifer, Sameroff, Barrett, L.C., & Krafchuk, E. (1994)

slide65
Michigan Family StudySusan McDonough, Michael MacKenzie, Kate Rosenblum.Mother Perceptions and Infant Crying
  • 200 Mothers and Infants
  • 7 months
    • Assess Amount of Infant Crying
    • Assess Mother’s Judgment of Problem
  • 15 months
    • Assess Amount of Infant Crying
  • 33 months
    • Assess Infant Mental Health (CBCL)
7 month mother s rating of crying problems and 7 and 15 month infant daily crying time
7-month Mother’s Rating of Crying Problems and 7 and 15-month Infant Daily Crying Time

F(3, 196) = 8.46, p<.001

7-Month Rating

15-Months

7-Months

7 month mother s rating of crying problems and 33 month child behavior check list score
7-month Mother’s Rating of Crying Problemsand 33-month Child Behavior Check List Score

F(3, 174)=5.22, p<.01

7-Month Rating

putting the pieces together unifying a model of development
Putting the Pieces TogetherUnifying a Model of Development
  • Personal Model
  • Contextual Model
  • Regulation Model
  • Representational Model
p sycho logical system
Psychological System

CHILD

CHILD

Mental Health

Social Competence

Communication

Cognition

PSYCHOLOGY

bio p sycho logical system
Biopsychological System

CHILD

CHILD

PSYCHOLOGY

Mental Health

Social Competence

Communication

Cognition

BIOLOGY

EpigenomicsProteomicsNeurophysiology Health Status

Gender

bio psycho social ecological system

Mental Health

Social Competence

Communication

Cognition

BiopsychoSocialEcological System

GEOPOLITICAL

COMMUNITY

FAMILY

PARENT

SCHOOL

PEERS

BIOLOGY

EpigenomicsProteomics

NeurophysiologyHealth

Gender

PSYCHOLOGY

adding change over time continuity discontinuity
Adding Change Over Time Continuity Discontinuity

DEVELOPMENT

GROWTH

  • TIME

TIME

bio psycho social continuity model
Biopsychosocial Continuity Model

SOCIALECOLOGY

SOCIALECOLOGY

OTHER

BIOLOGY

PSYCHOLOGY

INFANCYCHILDHOODADOLESCENCEADULTHOOD

rls longitudinal correlations for iq and mental health mh

.72

.72

IQ

4-Year

13-Year

18-Year

.45

.40

MH

4-Year

13-Year

18-Year

RLS Longitudinal Correlations forIQ and Mental Health (MH)
rls longitudinal correlations for iq and contextual risk
RLS Longitudinal Correlations forIQ and Contextual Risk

.72

.72

IQ

4-Year

13-Year

18-Year

-.59

-.61

-.47

RISK

4-Year

13-Year

18-Year

.80

.77

bio psycho social discontinuity model
Biopsychosocial Discontinuity Model

SOCIALECOLOGY

SOCIALECOLOGY

OTHER

BIOLOGY

SELF

PSYCHOLOGY

INFANCYCHILDHOODADOLESCENCEADULTHOOD

utility of evolutionary model
Utility of Evolutionary Model

Evolutionary psychologists tend to be reductionists

Evolutionary biologists tend to be systems oriented

Evolution deals with issues of change

However--Stasis is predominant characteristic of species

Occasional bursts of evolutionary change

Theory of Punctuated Equilibria—(Eldredge / Gould)

Continuity—Equilibria represent periods of stable relations between species and their environment

Discontinuity—Punctuation occurs when species-environment relationships change

developmental transitions as nature nurture disequilibria
Developmental Transitions as Nature-Nurture Disequilibria

SOCIALECOLOGY

SOCIALECOLOGY

OTHER

BIOLOGY

SELF

PSYCHOLOGY

INFANCYCHILDHOODADOLESCENCEADULTHOOD

5 to 7 year shift
5 to 7 Year Shift

SOCIALECOLOGY

SOCIALECOLOGY

OTHER

BIOLOGY

SELF

PSYCHOLOGY

INFANCYCHILDHOODADOLESCENCEADULTHOOD

slide81

Sheldon White (1965)

21 Behavioral domains show shift

Highlighted Piaget’s Research

Sameroff & Haith (1996)

30 years later

Was there still evidence of shift?

Consensus meeting

conference questions 1
Conference Questions (1)
  • Do 7-year-old children behave differently than 5-year-old children?
  • If behaviors differ, are differences quantitative of qualitative
  • If quantitative, are changes continuous or discontinuous
  • If qualitative, is there a reorganization of existing behaviors or emergence of new behaviors
conference questions 2
Conference Questions (2)
  • Is the environment of 7-year-old children different from that of 5-year-old children?
  • If environments differ, are differences quantitative of qualitative
  • If quantitative, are changes continuous or discontinuous
  • If qualitative, is there a reorganization of existing experiences or emergence of new experiences
is there a 5 7 behavioral shift
Is There a 5-7 Behavioral Shift?
  • YES
    • If by 5 you mean 3
    • And by 7 you mean 10

Age in Years

is there a 5 7 environmental shift
Is There a 5-7 Environmental Shift?
  • Really YES
    • Majority of cultures begin education between 5 and 7
    • Rogoff-Weisner

Age in Years

is there a 5 7 shift
Is There a 5-7 Shift?
  • Institutional-Cultural Shifts …Based on Average Child
    • 1. Advance in logical abilities
    • 2. Increased short term memory
    • 3. Sits still in a chair
    • 4. Attends to teacher

Age in Years

reframing continuity discontinuity model
Reframing Continuity-Discontinuity Model

SOCIALECOLOGY

SOCIALECOLOGY

OTHER

BIOLOGY

SELF

PSYCHOLOGY

FAMILYELEMENTARY SECONDARY WORK &

SCHOOLSCHOOLNEW FAMILY

adolescent junior high school transition
Adolescent-Junior High School Transition

SOCIALECOLOGY

SOCIALECOLOGY

OTHER

BIOLOGY

SELF

PSYCHOLOGY

FAMILYELEMENTARY SECONDARY WORK &

SCHOOLSCHOOLNEW FAMILY

junior high age stage mismatch eccles midgley stage environment fit approach
Junior High Age-Stage Mismatch.Eccles & Midgley Stage-Environment Fit Approach

Adolescent Needs

Typical Jr. High School

Increased School Size

Increased Impersonal Bureaucracy

Increased Teacher Control

Decreased Teacher Trust

Disruptions in Peer Network

Decreased Opportunity for Close Student-Teacher Ties

ANTI-DEVELOPMENTAL

Opportunities to “Matter”

Opportunities for Autonomy

Feelings of Respect

Peer Group Affiliation

Sexual Intimacy

Close Ties to Mentors

unified model of development
Unified Model of Development

with Representational Overlay

SOCIALECOLOGY

SOCIALECOLOGY

OTHER

BIOLOGY

SELF

PSYCHOLOGY

FAMILYELEMENTARY SECONDARY WORK &

SCHOOLSCHOOLNEW FAMILY

predicting the future

Integration

Predicting the Future

1880’s-30’s—Nature

1930’s-50’s—Nurture

1960’s-70’s—Nature

1980’s-90’s—Nurture

2000’s-10’s—Nature

2010’s-20’s—???

Ascendance

current nature ascendance
Current Nature Ascendance

Derived from interdisciplinary collaboration (Parke)

Primarily Influenced by Advances in Biological Science

Molecular Genetics, Endocrinology, Neurology

Good News

Multidirectional models are replacing unidirectional ones

Brain Plasticity, Gene-Environment Interactions, Epigenome-Experience Transactions

Relationship Based—Complex Systems Analyses

Incorporates Both Nature and Nurture at every level of analysis

Bad News

Supported by reductionist Western/NIH funding orientation that prefers that pathology be found in individuals rather than social relationships

future nurture resurgence
Future Nurture Resurgence (?)

Will be derived from interdisciplinary collaboration Primarily Influenced by Social Science

Opportunity Structure and Meaning Making

Good News Relationship Based—Individuals in Settings

Anthropology: Constraints on Identities/Meaning Systems

Sociology: Constraints on Roles

Economics: Constraints on Resources

Incorporates both Nature and Nurture at each level of analysis

Bad News

Political Science and Historical Constraints—Geopolitical Context

Adequate funding depends on political acknowledgementthat society has something to do with developmental outcomes

development of the developmentalist96
Development of the Developmentalist

1940’s—Psychologist

IQ & Personality Traits

1960’s—Developmental PsychologistCognitive & Social Representations

1980’s—Developmental Scientist

Biology & Social Ecology

2000’s—Systems Theorist

Dynamic Regulation Models

accepting development to understand development97
Accepting Development to Understand Development
  • Future challenge is not to find new arguments for nature vs. nurture.
  • Future challenge isto create a model where advances in the study of both individual and context are expected and hoped for.
  • Future requires filling in the gaps of aUnified Theory of Development.
coming full circle think yin yang
Coming Full CircleThink Yin-Yang

Continuities:

Still pushing the limits of our understanding of the unity of natures and nurtures

Discontinuities:

Realization that neither provides ultimate truth

Neither can be end in itselve

Each helps explain the influences of the other

Nature and Nurture mutually constitute each other

Nu

Nature

Nurture

Na

slide99

“Everything should be

as simple as possible

. . . but not simpler. "

Albert Einstein