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The Development of Developmental Science

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  1. The Development of Developmental Science Arnold Sameroff SRCD April, 2009

  2. Metaphors and Models Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited to all we now know . . ., while imagination embraces all there ever will be to know. Albert Einstein

  3. Development of Development Historical Framing Issues Parke Integrating Multiple Disciplines Integrating Research and Practice Huston Integrating Research and Policy Sameroff Integrating Nature and Nurture

  4. ? Y X SuccessfulAdulthood Babies

  5. NATURE Y X NURTURE Adult Success Infancy

  6. Development of Nature-Nurture as an Organizing Construct • Triggered by child with problem • Popular: Who is to blame? • Empirical: Which is it? • It’s both • But, how is it both? • Interactional: Deterministic/Percentages • Add up static entities • Transactional: Probablistic/Odds • Disentangle dynamic systems

  7. 1880’s-1940’s—Nature Inherited Individual Differences Instincts 1920’s-50’s—Nurture Reinforcement Theory Psychoanalytic Theory 1960’s-70’s—Nature Ethology—Species Differences Behavioral Genetics Cognitive Revolution 1980’s-90’s—Nurture Poverty Social Ecology Cultural Deconstruction 2000’s-10’s—Nature Molecular Biology Neuroscience What do you notice? Cycling of Explanations Each step seen as closing the argument! However, each step leaves most of the variance unexplained Explanation of Cycling Tied to technological advances Tied to theoretical advances Is it linear historical progress? Is it phenomena in itself? Rough History of Nature-Nurture

  8. Non-Linear Models of Cycling/Change/Development • Dialectics • Developmental Helix • Differentiation & Hierarchic Integration

  9. Dialectics 1 Everything is composed of opposites (Yin-Yang not completely opposite)

  10. Dialectics 2 Opposites mutually constitute each other Unity of opposites COGNITION and WORLD Without the world there would be nothing to cognize Without cognition there would be no world for us Interpenetration of opposites One’s cognition leads to one’s action in the world One’s action in the world becomes part of one’s cognition W Cognition World C

  11. Dialectics 2 Nature and Nurture Mutually Constitute Each Other Unity of opposites Both required for development Interpenetration of opposites Nature changes one’s nurture Nurture changes one’s nature Nu Nature Nurture Na

  12. Dialectics 2:Nature and Nurture Mutually Constitute Each Other Galton (1876) Matt McGue “nature prevails enormously over nurture when the differences of nurture do not exceed what is commonly to be found among persons of the same rank in society and in the same country ” Watson (1914) “effectiveness of habit training would be facilitated by knowledge of an animal’s individual instinctive responses” Nu Nature Nurture Na

  13. Dialectics 3: The HelixDevelopmental change moves in spirals Developmental Helix Day-Night Representations Relationships

  14. Integration Dialectics 4:Development is Differentiation and Integration Orthogenetic Principle “Wherever development occurs it proceeds from a state of relative globality and lack of differentiation to a state of increasing differentiation, articulation, and hierarchic integration.” Heinz Werner Differentiation

  15. GRE Gateway to Graduate School Sample Question Science advances in a widening spiral in that each new conceptual scheme embraces the phenomena explained by its predecessors and adds to those explanations.

  16. Integration Developmental Helix Differentiation of Nature Behavioral Differences Neurological Differences Biochemical Differences Genomic Differences Epigenomic Differences Differentiation

  17. Integration Developmental Helix Differentiation of Nurture Mother Love Reinforcements Social Class Social Ecology Social Deconstruction Differentiation

  18. Integrating Developmental Double Helix Combining NatureandNurture • Differentiating • Integrating • Alternating Ascendance • Based on advances in technology/theory Differentiating

  19. Integration Getting to the PointHistory of Developmental Psychology 1880’s-30’s—Nature 1930’s-50’s—Nurture 1960’s-70’s—Nature 1980’s-90’s—Nurture 2000’s-10’s—Nature 2010’s-20’s—??? Ascending

  20. Cycling between nature explanations and nurture explanations is a continuing evolutionary process. Accepting development to understand development

  21. Accepting development to understand development Proposition 1: Cycling will continue until either the nature or nurture position gets it right. Problem of Multifinality and Equifinality Same Individual Characteristics often lead to Different Outcomes Different Individual Characteristics often lead to Same Outcomes Limiting factor in each cycle is unexplained variance

  22. Accepting development to understand development Proposition 2: Nature-Nurture is a Unity of Opposites. Neither can ever get it right. Changes in our understanding of nurture illuminate nature Changes in our understanding of nature illuminates nurture If opposites represent a unity, what is the unity of nature and nurture?

  23. BIG QUESTION: Can there be a Unified Theory of Development?

  24. Four Requirements for aUnified Theory of Development • Personal Change Model • Contextual Model • Regulation Model • Representational Model

  25. INFANCY CHILDHOOD ADOLESCENCE ADULTHOOD 1. Personal Change Model Trait DEVELOPMENT • TIME

  26. INFANCY CHILDHOOD ADOLESCENCE ADULTHOOD 1. Personal Change Model Growth DEVELOPMENT • TIME

  27. INFANCY CHILDHOOD ADOLESCENCE ADULTHOOD 1. Personal Change Model ADULTHOOD Development ADOLESCENCE DEVELOPMENT CHILDHOOD INFANCY • TIME

  28. 1. Personal Change Model INFANCY CHILDHOOD ADOLESCENCE ADULTHOOD FORMAL Piaget CONCRETE DEVELOPMENT PREOP SEN. MOT. • TIME

  29. 1. Personal Change Model INFANCY CHILDHOOD ADOLESCENCE ADULTHOOD MASTER (10,000 Hrs.) Expertise EXPERT DEVELOPMENT ADEPT NOVICE • TIME

  30. Requirements for aUnified Theory of Development • Personal Change Model • Contextual Model • Regulation Model • Representational Model

  31. GEOPOLITICAL COMMUNITY FAMILY PARENT CHILD SCHOOL PEERS CHILD 2. Contextual Model

  32. PhiladelphiaAdolescent Development Study.Frank Furstenburg, Thomas Cook, Jacque Eccles, Glen Elder, & Todd Bartko • 500 11- to 14-year olds • Urban Setting • Multiple Outcomes • Multiple Contextual Risks

  33. 20 Contextual Risk and Promotive Factors Proximal • Parent-Child Interaction • Parent Personality • Family Structure & Economy • Family Management • Peers • School • Community Distal

  34. Mental Health Self Self Self Self - - - - Competence Competence Competence Competence Problem Behavior Problem Behavior Problem Behavior Problem Behavior Activity Involvement Activity Involvement Activity Involvement Activity Involvement Academic Performance Academic Performance Academic Performance Academic Performance 1.2 1.2 0.9 0.9 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.3 Competence Competence 0 0 - - 0.3 0.3 - - 0.6 0.6 - - 0.9 0.9 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 Risk Factors Risk Factors

  35. 1.2 1.2 Mental Health Self Self Self Self - - - - Competence Competence Competence Competence 0.9 0.9 Problem Behavior Problem Behavior Problem Behavior Problem Behavior 0.6 0.6 Activity Involvement Activity Involvement Activity Involvement Activity Involvement Academic Performance Academic Performance Academic Performance Academic Performance 0.3 0.3 Competence Competence 0 0 - - 0.3 0.3 - - 0.6 0.6 - - 0.9 0.9 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 13+ 13+ Promotive Factors

  36. Requirements for aUnified Theory of Development • Personal Change Model • Contextual Model • Regulation Model • Representational Model

  37. 3. RegulationModel Other-Regulation Self-Regulation Development

  38. Developmental Regulation Self Others Parenting Schooling Medicine Legal System Physiological Emotional Behavioral Attentional

  39. Early Mental Health Study Group CASBS Robert Emde Daniel Stern Alan Sroufe Thomas Anders Arthur Parmelee Herbert Liederman David Reiss Question: At what age can an individual be given a psychiatric diagnosis? Can babies have MH diagnoses?

  40. Early Mental Health Study Group Winnicott (1960) “There is no such thing as a baby” Study Group (1989) “There is no psychopathology in the infant . . .disorder can only be found in the infant-caregiver relationship.” Nosology Parent-Infant Regulation Disorders Development When is self trans-situational?

  41. Infancy Arnold Sameroff Melvin Zax Early Childhood Ronald Seifer Ralph Barocas Adolescence Alfred Baldwin Clare Baldwin Tim Kasser Adulthood Katherine Rosenblum Lisa Slominski Rochester Longitudinal Study

  42. Child - Parent Parent Family Social Child-Parent Interaction Developmental Knowledge Parent Psychiatric History Parent Anxiety Education HH Occupation Family Size Single Parent Stressful Life Events Minority Status RLS Contextual Risks

  43. 4-Year Multiple Contextual Risk Predicting 30-Year Mental Health (GAF) Good Functioning

  44. 4-Year Multiple Contextual Risk Predicting 30-Year Educational Attainment BA HS

  45. 4-Year IQPredicting to 18-Year Math Achievement 4-Year

  46. 4-Year Mental Health Predicting to 18-Year Mental Health 4-Year

  47. 18-Year Mental Health Predicting to 30-Year Mental Health (PIRS) 4 18-Year MH High Low 3 30-Yr. Mental Health 2 0 1 2 3 4+ 18-Year Social Risk

  48. 18-Year IQ Predicting to 30-Year Educational Attainment 18-Year IQ BA HS

  49. Operationalizing Regulation:Transactional Model

  50. 3a. Transactional RegulationModel Other-Regulation Self-Regulation Development