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Resolving Barriers for Participation in Outfitted Trips

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  1. Resolving Barriers for Participation in Outfitted Trips Duarte B. Morais, Ph.D.

  2. Acknowledgements America Outdoors David Brown Pennsylvania State University Traci Zillifro Gyan Nyaupane Deborah Kerstetter

  3. Purpose Non-participants • Constraints Participants • Information sources • Motivations • Decision making roles • Type of group

  4. 1st mailing 2nd mailing 3rd mailing 1 week 2 weeks 2 weeks 251 surveys received 121 surveys received 218 surveys received Methods Survey 8 pages / 4 sections Incentive for participation Population Outdoor enthusiasts 14 states, 157 individuals in each state(N=2,200)

  5. Sample • Sample – 590 usable surveys (30.6%) • 51.6% Females, 48.4% Males • Average age: 48.1 years old • 18.0% Managers, 13.6% Retired, 11.3% Sales, 7.9% Teacher • Income > $55k (71.3 %)

  6.  Non-participants Outdoor enthusiasts who did not participate in any of the activities • 59.2% of sample • 57.3% Females, 42.7% Males • Average age: 48.7 years old • 18.0% Managers, 14.0% Retired, 11.9% Sales • 79.9% Income > $55K • 94.5% Caucasian/white • 32.3% Suburbs, 18.7% Sml city, 15.9% Lg city, 14.1 % Rural • 52.9% College, 28.2% Graduate school, 18.7% High school

  7. Participation Rates Rafting Canoeing Horseback Southwest 19.3% 14.7% 4.6% Northwest 20.7% 25.4% 4.6% Southeast 20.5% 25.3% 3.8% Midwest 14.4% 26.8% 2.5% Northwest 9.9% 16.7% 3.9%

  8. Constraints Reasons why individuals do not participate in an activity despite being interested • Intrapersonal constraints • Stress, perceived skill, risk • Interpersonal constraints • Availability of friends or family • Structural constraints • Free time, family-life-cycle, monetary costs,

  9. Constraints – Results Rafting Canoeing Horseback Intrapersonal 2.58 2.31 2.53 * Interpersonal 2.84 2.92 2.99 Structural 3.15 2.89 3.09 * (1=not important, 5=very important) • Intrapersonal are least important – little control • Inter & Structural most important – more control • Canoeing is perceived as less threatening • Canoeing is perceived as less costly ($, time)

  10. Constraints – Implications • Offer trips with varying levels of challenge • Offer instruction programs • Educate about actual risks and exertion • Offer short options • Offer family fun trips • Do not use discounts to increase demand • Help customers educate others

  11.  Participants Outdoor enthusiasts who participated in each activity Rafting Canoeing Horseback Females 38.3% 39.3% 47.6% Occupation Mgt, Ret Mgt, Sales Mgt, Teach Income>$55k 85.9% 85.9% 71.4% Community Sub, LCt Sub, STw Sub, LCt

  12. Sources of Information Importance of sources of information about the outfitter Rafting Canoeing Horseback 1 Previous trips 4.0 4.0 3.9 2 Friends/family 3.9 4.0 3.7 3 Brochure 3.6 3.3 3.2 4 Internet 3.1 2.8 2.8 5 Newsletter/catalog 2.9 2.6 2.8 6 Tourism agency 2.6 2.5 2.5 7 Newspaper/magazine 2.4 2.3 2.8 (1=not important, 5=very important)

  13. Sources of Info – Implications • Encourage trial – experience is most important • Help customers become advocates – WOM advertising is very important • Merchandize with logo • Group information packet • Internet forums, postcards, digital pictures • Do not neglect brochures • Embrace Internet marketing • Use newsletters and catalogs for nurturing relationships with loyal customers

  14. Motivations Importance of motivation factors to take the trip • Self improvement Self confidence, who I am, feel independent, capable of doing • Escape life Physical exercise, release tensions, avoid responsibilities / clatter • Family fun • Do something with family, bring family closer

  15. Motivations – Results Rafting Canoeing Horseback Self improvement 2.86 2.58 3.03 Escape life 3.00 3.34 3.46 Family fun 3.53 3.96 3.54 (1=not important, 5=very important) • Family fun most important motivation • Self improvement least important motivation • Canoeing least Self improvement • Canoeing highest family fun

  16. Motivations - Implications • Develop family trips and promotions – social factors are important motivation • Benchmark canoeing outfitters in attracting families • Promotions for rafting and canoeing should focus on “overcoming challenges” (item level) • Promotions for horseback riding should focus on learning about one’s potential & escape (item level) • Excitement and independence are not important for horseback riders

  17. Decision-making Roles Level of involvement in decision- making roles preparing for the trip Rafting Canoeing Horseback Gathering info 43.5% 43.7% 44.2% Sharing info w/ group 42.3% 40.8% 42.5% Final purchase 52.0% 45.2% 65.4% Make reservations 48.7% 46.7% 55.4% Coordinating travel 43.7% 46.3% 55.4%

  18. D-M Roles - Results Do all customers collaborate in pre-trip decision-making roles? Frequency charts No K-means Cluster Analysis Three kinds of customers 40% low involvement 25% collaborative role 35% exclusive control

  19. D-M Roles – Implications • Not all customers/groups are the same! • Take charge leaders • Team work • Come along • Provide assistance to take charge leaders • Come alongs are good because of WOM and trials • Create communication system to work with teams

  20. Type of Group Motivations and behavior are closely related to type of social group Rafting Canoeing Horseback Spouse 56.8% 74.2% 61.5% Children 40.9% 47.0% 46.2% Friends 47.1% 50.0% 46.2% Business peers 13.8% 6.1% 0.0% Church groups 10.3% 7.6% 0.0% Tour groups 5.7% 1.5% 0.0% Youth groups 8.0% 4.5% 0.0%

  21. Type of Group - Results Motivations differences between family and non-family segment Rafting Canoeing Horseback Fam/NonF Fam/NonF Fam/NonF Self improvement 2.80 / 2.90 2.65 / 2.38 2.88 / 3.27 Escape life 3.02 / 2.97 3.49 / 2.92 3.38 / 3.60 Family fun 3.97 / 2.95 4.20 / 3.26 4.13 / 2.60 (1=not important, 5=very important) • Expected Vs observed don’t match!!!

  22. Type of Group – Implications • Target families – more than half of the participants belong to family segment • Rafting outfitters provide experiences attractive to everyone • Various types of groups • Small differences in motivations between Fam / Nonfam • Canoeing outfitters have been very successful in attracting families • Horseback outfitters attract non-family market by focusing on escape & self improvement

  23. Summary • Various factors are constraining the participation of the majority of outdoor enthusiasts • Educating about risks and physical challenge • Help overcome time and family constraints • Maximize own experience and WOM are most important sources of information • Encourage advocacy and trial • Social/family motivations are most important • Only for family segment • Various types of customers • Come alongs, team workers, take charge

  24. Resolving Barriers for Participation in Outfitted Trips Duarte B. Morais, Ph.D. The Pennsylvania State University 228 Mateer Building University Park, PA 16802-1307 dmorais@psu.edu (814) 865-5614