Multimedia in the Classroom Computers in Education Week 8, 2006
What is Multimedia • Multimedia uses more than one mode of communication. • Uses a variety of media • Text, visuals, sound, animation, video. • A video clip is a good example of multimedia • Information is presented in multi-modular, often exciting, motivating interactive way.
Multimedia Use of many formats for the presentation of information Hypermedia Interactive linking of video, animation, text, graphics Hypertext Nonlinear text Definitions • Tolhurst,D. (1995)
Multimedia? • Is an old term which has become very much part of the Information Technology vocabulary • For educators it has become a major consideration for curriculum planning and learning outcomes in the area of Information Technology. • Software that allows playing media formats on the web
What is Hypermedia? • Linked media allows the user to interact with the software by “clicking” on graphics, icons etc which will then “LINK” to media such as information, sound or pictures. • “Iconic linking” allows users to browse material to aid the reading process • Excellent example of hypermedia is the Web
What is Hypertext? • Linked text allows the user to interact with the web page by “clicking” on highlighted text, which will then “LINK” to other information. • Interactivity (computer programs) rather than passivity (Television or film)
Historical Perspective • Accessing Information has developed many formats over the years. • Storytelling & Hieroglyphics • Writing & Printing • Photography & Film • Sound & Video • Multimedia combines all these types of these media
Formats of Multimedia • CD-ROM • DVD • Digital video • Streaming video • Podcasting
Magic School Bus CD-Rom • Interactive Science Adventure • Junior Primary level • Foster Enquiring Minds?
Integrating Multimedia Resources into the curriculum • An example: MSEncarta 2005 Accessing Information Retrieving Information Presenting Information See Roblyer (2004) Chapter 7 See Grabe and Grabe (2004) Chapter 7
Multimedia Learning Tools for Students • Bananas in Pyjamas (Educational Games) • Dangerous Creatures, Encarta, • Explorer & Nature (Encyclopedias) • Grandma and Me (Electronic Books) • Working for the Right Balance: Mines and Energy (Curriculum/Subject Focused)
Teaching with Multimedia • Textbook • Grabe, M. and Grabe, C. 2004 Intregrating Technology For Meaningful Learning Houghton Mifflin
Uses of Multimedia • Presentation media • PowerPoint • KidPix • Hyper Studio • Videoconferencing • Web pages • Accessing information
Web page multi media • Stand-ins • Make your web page talk • Design your own multi- media http://www.lifefx.com/faceoftheinternet/main.html
Disadvantages of Multimedia • Hardware intensive • Lack of teacher training • Students require skills & access to equipment • Costly • Time intensive • Confusion when users can get lost in poorly designed programs
Advantages of Multimedia • Uses a number of senses • Helps cater for the differing learning styles • Captures student interest • Motivational • Encourages creativity & higher order thinking
Types of Multimedia Packages • Publishing Tools Students: Hyperstudio Kidpix Microworlds Web Publishing Tools (Dreamweaver)
Multimedia and the Curriculum • Multimedia in the classroom can assist students developing their own skills as: Communicators Creators Problem Solvers Presenters Researchers Motivated, successful learners
Multimedia in the Curriculum • Resource for curriculum planning in the Information Technology Strand (SACSA) Accessing Information Retrieving Information Analyzing/Critiquing Information Presenting Information
Multimedia in the Curriculum The Constructivist approach of authoring multimedia leads to :- • less “lecture - recitation -seat-work” • more “student/teacher co-operation • and joint investigation • more peer tutoring • addresses varied learning styles • See Roblyer (2004) Ch.7 • See Grabe and Grabe (2004) Ch.7
Impact on Students’ Learning Outcomes • Educational Interactive Multimedia offers: Success orientated activities Exciting, motivating learning activities Visualisation in a variety of formats Faster access to information Independent users of technology Efficient users of technology Collaborative learners
Summary: Multimedia • Encourages and supports creativity • Encourages active engagement • Increase confidence with technologies • Cater for various learning styles • Makes learning exciting • Children have their own expectations about new media.
References • Grabe, M and Grabe, C. (2004). Integrating Technology for Meaningful Learning (4th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. • Maddux, C.D., Johnson, D.L., & Willis, J.W.(2001). Multimedia and hypermedia in education. In C.D. Maddux, D.L. Johnson, & J.W. Willis, Educational Computing: Learning with tomorrow’s technologies (3rd ed.). (pp 251-280). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. • Microsoft Encarta 2000. • Robyler, M.D. (2004) Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching (3rd ed.). Columbo, Ohio: Merill, Prentice Hall. • Tannenbaum, R. (1998) Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia, W.H.Freeman &Co. Australia • Tolhurst, D. (1995) Hypertext, hypermedia, multimedia, Educational Technology,35 (2) 21-26. • Prensky, M. (1998) Twitch speed. Keeping up with Young Workers. Available at http://www.twitchspeed.com/site/article.html [Acessed May 2003]