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MODELING OF INDUCTION HARDENING PROCESS PART 1: INDUCTION HEATING. Dr. Jiankun Yuan Prof. Yiming (Kevin) Rong. Acknowledgement: This project is partially supported by Delphi and CHTE at WPI. Dr. Q. Lu was involved in the early work of the project. http://me.wpi.edu/~camlab.

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modeling of induction hardening process part 1 induction heating
MODELING OF INDUCTION HARDENING PROCESSPART 1: INDUCTION HEATING

Dr. Jiankun Yuan

Prof. Yiming (Kevin) Rong

Acknowledgement: This project is partially supported by Delphi and CHTE at WPI. Dr. Q. Lu was involved in the early work of the project.

http://me.wpi.edu/~camlab

induction why induction heat treatment
Induction: Why Induction Heat Treatment?

Advantages

Greatly shortened heat treatment cycle

Highly selective

Highly energy efficiency

Less-pollution process

Practical Problems

  • Lack of systematic heating time and temperature distribution control inside WP.
  • Nonlinear effect of material properties.
  • Lack phase transformation data inside WP for hardness and residual stress determination.
  • Evaluate combination effect of AC power density, frequency and gap on final hardness pattern.
  • Trial and error, cost and design period.

Research content:FEM based electromagnetic/thermal analysis

+ quenching analysis + hardening analysis

Numerical modeling may provide better prediction

Research objective: (1)ProvideT field, time history inside WP

(2) Determine formed content of martensite, pearlite and bainite.

(3) Determine hardness distribution in WP.

(4) Guidance for induction system design.

introduction induction hardening process
Introduction: Induction Hardening Process
  • Induction heating: metal parts heated to austenite Phase
  • Fast quenching process transforms austenite to martensite phase

workpiece

Inductor/coil

Heating process

  • Martensite content determines the hardness

Joule heat by

eddy current

  • Martensitic structure is the most hardest microstructure

Electromagnetic field

High freq. AC power

Induction

coil

principle electromagnetic and thermal analysis

(b) FEA model

(a) WP geometry

QN

QN

QW

QEt

QR+ QCV

QE

QC

QB

WP

Coil

(Outside)

QS

QS

(c) Interior element

(d) Surface element

Principle: Electromagnetic and Thermal Analysis

Electromagnetic Analysis

Thermal Analysis with finite element model

Input AC power to coil

Calculation of

magnetic vector potential (A)

Calculation of

magnetic flux density (B)

B =  A

(Gauss’ Law for

magnetic field)

Calculation of

magnetic field intensity (H)

H = B / 

Calculation of

electric field intensity (E)

(Faraday’s Law)

Calculation of

electric field density (D)

D =  E

Calculation of

current density (J)

(Ampere’s Circuital Law)

Heat conduction

Calculation of

Inducting heat (Qinduction)

Qinduction = E J = J2/

Output:

Heat generation Qinduction in WP

Induced Joule heat

Heat convection

Heat radiation

case study complex surface hardening
Case Study: Complex Surface Hardening

concave

Material: Carbon Steel, AISI 1070

convex

Automotive parts from Delphi Inc., Sandusky,Ohio

  • Concave and convex on surface of workpiece make the heating process not easy to control.

Real spindle to be hardened

Geometry Model

  • ANSYS system is employed for the analysis.
  • Mesh should be much finer at locations of convex and concave in both coil and workpiece.

Mesh generated by ANSYS

FEA model and B.C.

case study material properties aisi 1070
Case Study: Material Properties -- AISI 1070

(a) Electromagnetic Properties

conductivity

WP relative

permeability

Electrical

Resistivity

(b) Thermal Properties

Emissivity

Specific

heat

Convection

coefficient

effect of current density distribution
Effect of current density distribution
  • Constant current distribution in coil can not result in good heating pattern, especially at concaves of workpiece
  • Better hardened pattern resulted from modification of Finer coil mesh and enhanced coil current density at area neighboring to surface concaves of workpiece.
  • Enhanced coil current density suggests utilization of magnetic controller at those area in coil design process. Physically this can be fulfilled by magnetic controller.

(a1) Constant current distribution in coil (a2) heated pattern

(b1) Adjusted current distribution in coil (b2) heated pattern

case study temperature variation with time in induction heating process
Case Study:Temperature Variation with Time in Induction Heating Process

t=0.5s

t=2s

Total heating time th = 7.05s

f=9600Hz s=1.27mm J=1.256e6 A/m2

t=4s

case study heating curves
Case Study: Heating Curves

Summary

• A finite element method based modeling system is developed to analyze the coupled electromagnetic/thermal process in induction heating andimplemented in ANSYS package, with following capabilities.

• Provide electrical and magnetic field strength distribution.

• Provide instantaneous temperature field data in workpiece.

• Provide Temperature history at any location in heating process.

• Provide guidance for inductor/coil design based on adjustment of current density distribution and desired heating patterns.