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Mate Preferences in the Hadza Marlowe 2004 PowerPoint Presentation
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Mate Preferences in the Hadza Marlowe 2004. Mate Preferences in the Hadza. Mate Preferences in the Hadza.

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Presentation Transcript
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The Hadza people are an ethnic group of north-central Tanzania, living around Lake Eyasi in the central Rift Valley and in the neighboring Serengeti Plateau. The Hadza number just about 1000. About 300–400 Hadza still live as hunter-gatherers, much as their ancestors have for thousands or tens of thousands of years; they are the last functioning hunter-gatherers in Africa.

The Hadza are not closely related to any other people. Modern genetic research suggests that they are most closely related to the Pygmies.

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Men specialize in hunting mammals and birds with bows and arrows, and in collecting honey

  • Meat is shared widely (but more likely to be kept in the family when wife is nursing).
  • Women specialize in collecting tubers, berries, and greens. Both collect baobab fruit.
  • Median age at first marriage = 21 for men, 17 for women
  • Marriages not arranged – Marriage = living together
  • Young females courted, can lead to violent conflict between men
  • Serial monogamy, divorce rate high
  • Cause of divorce often man pursuing an ‘extra-marital’ affair
  • Live in camps, average about 25 people, but membership continually changing
  • Males often visit other camps to find a mate
  • ~ Matrifocal – usually live with family of wife
  • Good hunters have greater reproductive success
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Methods

  • Interviewed (in Swahili) 48 men (mean age 37) and 39 women (mean age 29) in several different camps (~1/2 the adult population of full-time foragers)
  • “If you were looking for a husband (wife), what kind of man (woman) would you want? What is important to you?”
  • Responses condensed as
      • Foraging
      • Looks
      • Character
      • Fertility
      • Fidelity
      • Intelligence
      • Youth
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Women did not value looks any less than men

  • When fertility, youth and looks added together, and age controlled, men did value appearance more
  • Hadza men, unlike U.S. men, preferred heavy over normal or thin women, high over low waist-to-hip ratio (Marlowe & Wetsman 2001)
  • Women valued intelligence more than men (had not been well studied in modern societies at the time of this study)
  • Hadza men value fertility more than women – childlessness often a reason for divorce – like younger women (< 25)
  • Men want hard-working wives!
  • Hadza women did not place less value on fidelity than did men (though infidelity more dangerous for women)
  • Women placed more value on men being good hunters than any other trait – even though meat is shared with whole camp
    • is it because she values the resource?
    • or because it is a good overall indicator of genetic quality?