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Grammar Presentation: Punctuation. GradWRITE! Initiative Writing Support Centre Student Development Services. Outline. The comma The semicolon The colon The apostrophe. Punctuation. Verbal English has many pauses Punctuation indicates when to pause in written text

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grammar presentation punctuation
Grammar Presentation:Punctuation
  • GradWRITE! Initiative
  • Writing Support Centre
  • Student Development Services
outline
Outline
  • The comma
  • The semicolon
  • The colon
  • The apostrophe
punctuation
Punctuation
  • Verbal English has many pauses
  • Punctuation indicates when to pause in written text
  • Errors in grammar can obscure meaning
  • The panda eats, shoots, and leaves.
  • The panda eats shoots and leaves.
the comma
The Comma ( , )
  • Short pause
  • I err on the side of taking commas out
comma 1
Comma: 1
  • Joining independent clauses with coordinating conjunctions (and, or, but...)
  • Example:
    • The feedback improved, and the module had a stronger output.
comma 2
Comma: 2
  • Joining an independent clause and a dependent clause
  • Example:
    • Although I had difficulty, I still prevailed.
comma 3
Comma: 3
  • Separating items in a series
  • Example:
    • I have the most trouble with spelling, grammar and punctuation.
comma 31
Comma: 3
  • Comma before ‘and’ is optional, unless needed for clarity
  • Example:
    • Snakes and ladders, hide and seek, and tag are Jim’s favourite games.
comma 4
Comma: 4
  • Setting off non-restrictive elements
  • Example:
    • The sample, which contained sulfur, did not react.
    • To begin, the fundamental argument of Freud...
  • Exception for short sentences:
    • Then it started.
the semicolon
The Semicolon ( ; )
  • A longer pause
  • Rule of thumb, only use when a period would also suffice
the semicolon 1
The Semicolon: 1
  • Joining independent clauses, with or without a subordinating conjunction (‘however, although, on the other hand...’)
  • Example:
    • The sample was tainted; it had no effect.
    • We completed the circuit; however, the light would not turn on.
the semicolon 2
The Semicolon: 2
  • Separating items in a series that contain commas
  • Example:
    • Henry's mother believes three things: that every situation, no matter how grim, will be happily resolved; that no one knows more about human nature than she; and that Henry, who is thirty-five years old, will never be able to do his own laundry.
the colon
The Colon ( : )
  • Big pause
  • Completely different than the semicolon
the colon 1
The Colon: 1
  • Introduce a list or phrase after an independent clause
  • Example:
    • Henry's mother believes three things: that every situation, no matter how grim, will be happily resolved; that no one knows more about human nature than she; and that Henry, who is thirty-five years old, will never be able to do his own laundry.
the colon 11
The Colon: 1
  • If what follows the colon is a complete sentence, you may capitalize the first letter
  • Examples:
    • Also note that some people like to capitalize the first letter of the first word after the colon: They believe it is more stylistically appropriate.
the colon 2
The Colon: 2
  • Displayed equations must be introduced with an independent clause followed by a colon
  • Then, double space, write out equation, double space, start new paragraph
the colon 21
The Colon: 2
  • Example:
    • The following equation details the expression:
    • (1)
    • a = bc + 2d
    • The application of this...
the colon 22
The Colon: 2
  • Equations within a text do not require a colon
  • Example:
    • “The equation 2a = b + c showed...”
the apostrophe 1
The Apostrophe: 1
  • Used in contractions
  • Generally, contractions are inappropriate in academic writing
  • Example:
    • Temperature didn’t affect the reaction.
    • Temperature did not affect the reaction.
the apostrophe 2
The Apostrophe: 2
  • Indicates possession
    • Example: Freud’s argument states that...
apostrophe 2
Apostrophe: 2
  • Rule of thumb:
    • If you pronounce the s add ’s
    • If not, add ’
  • Examples:
    • The boy’s room (one boy)
    • The boys’ room (two boys)
    • Jess’s dog used to be Rex’s