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外語學習能力測驗 Foreign Language Aptitude Test. 報告人:張玲瑛 日期: 10 月 17 日. 何謂外語學習能力測驗 (FLAT). 學習外語需要特別的天分。 個人習得外語所需時間長短不同,因此 外語學習能力 不同。 外語學習能力 與 一般學習能力 不同。 外語學習能力測驗 也與 語言能力測驗 不同。. FLAT 的應用. 預估個人習得外語所需時間 能力分班 (program placement) 課程評估與計畫 (program assessment and planning)

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foreign language aptitude test

外語學習能力測驗Foreign Language Aptitude Test

報告人:張玲瑛

日期:10月17日

slide2
何謂外語學習能力測驗(FLAT)
  • 學習外語需要特別的天分。
  • 個人習得外語所需時間長短不同,因此外語學習能力不同。
  • 外語學習能力與一般學習能力不同。
  • 外語學習能力測驗也與語言能力測驗不同。
slide3
FLAT的應用
  • 預估個人習得外語所需時間
  • 能力分班 (program placement)
  • 課程評估與計畫 (program assessment and planning)
  • 學習能力之診斷 (diagnosis of learning ability)
slide4
現今幾種外語學習能力測驗(FLAT)
  • MLAT
  • MLAT-E or EMALT
  • PLAB
  • DLAB
  • ALAT
  • VORD
  • CANAL-FT
mlat modern language aptitude test by john carroll stanley sapon 1959
MLAT (Modern Language Aptitude Test) -- by John Carroll & Stanley Sapon, 1959.
  • 適用於高中(九至十二年級)學生及成人。
  • 美國及加拿大各政府機關常用,美國政府情報單位也用。
  • 測試四種學習能力:
  • 語音辨識能力(phonetic coding ability): 測試語音辨識、語音與符號連結的能力,關係受試者聽音辨義能力。
  • 語法感知力(grammatical sensitivity):區別句中字、詞之語法功能的能力,關係受試者語法分析能力。
  • 記憶能力(rote learning ability):特指外語學習之記憶,有別於一般記憶力。
  • 歸納能力(inductive language learning ability): 特指外語學習之規則統整,有別於一般歸納能力。
slide6
MLAT測驗內容

1. number learning: 聽數字選數。

2. phonetic script: 聽字音選拼音符號。

3. spelling cues: 視字母線索選意義相關字。

4. words in sentences: 依句中某字功能選另句中相似功能之字。

5. paired associates: 授以某語之音義連結後測試此連結之記憶。

mlat e or emalt modern language aptitude test elementary by john carro stanley sapon 1967
MLAT-E or EMALT(Modern Language Aptitude Test-Elementary)-- by John Carro & Stanley Sapon, 1967.
  • 適用於小學(三至六年級)學生。
  • MLAT兒童版。
  • 有助於小學之外語學習能力分班及瞭解學生語言學習之個別需求。
plab pimsleur language aptitude battery by paul pimsleur 1965 2004
PLAB (Pimsleur Language Aptitude Battery)-- by Paul Pimsleur, 1965,2004.
  • 適用於國、高中(七至十二年級)學生。
  • 預測影響外語學習之四因素:
    • 語言智能 (verbal intelligence)
    • 學習動機(motivation)
    • 聽習能力(auditory ability)
    • 一般學業成績(grade point average)
slide9
PLAB包含六個部分
  • 一般學業成績(grade point average)
  • 學習外語的興趣(interest)
  • 字彙知識(vocabulary)
  • 外語分析能力(language analysis)
  • 語音辨聽能力(sound discrimination)
  • 語音與符號之連結能力(sound-symbol association)
dlab defense language aptitude battery by peterson al haik 1976
DLAB (Defense Language Aptitude Battery) – by Peterson & Al-Haik, 1976.
  • 美國國防部挑選軍中外語人員用,達到外語學習潛力測驗特定分數者,方可至DLI接受特殊外語人才培訓。
  • 除軍方外,聯邦調查局(FBI)也用。
  • 依受試成績可分為四種等級:達到85、90、95、100分者得接受不同外語之培訓,亦可用於能力分班或評估給予不等時數訓練之用。

85分以上:可學習荷、法、義、葡、西語

90分以上:可學習德語

95分以上:可學習希臘、希伯來、波斯、波蘭、俄、 泰、土耳其、越南語等

100分以上:可學習阿拉伯、華、日、韓語

slide11
DLAB的內容
  • 選擇題, 90 分鐘
  • 分數範圍 0-164, 均值 100, 標準偏差 15
  • 分四部分
    • Bio data
    • Spoken stress
    • Deductive rule application
    • Inductive pattern application
alat army language aptitude test by horne 1971
ALAT (Army Language Aptitude Test)– by Horne, 1971
  • Relatively short (57 items)
  • Speeded (7 min. to study, 20 min. to solve problems)
  • Ability to infer structure of an artificial (English-like) language
  • Focuses on Western Indo-European languages
vord vord is a turkic like artificial language by parry child 1990
VORD (Vord is a Turkic-like artificial language)– by Parry & Child, 1990.
  • 以人造語言分析能力測試語言學習能力
  • 語言分析項目有三部分:
    • 名詞構詞(Nominal morphology)
    • 動詞構詞(Verbal morphology)
    • 詞組及句法(Phrase and sentence syntax)
slide14
CANAL-FT (Cognitive Ability for Novelty in Acquisition of Language) — by Grigorenko, Sternberg, & Ehrman, 2000.
  • Similar to MLAT, PLAB, and DLAB, but

adds delayed recall measures

  • Nine subsets:
    • learning neologisms from context
    • understanding the meaning of passage
    • continuous paired-associate learning
    • sentential inference
    • learning language rules
canal ft cont
CANAL-FT (cont.)

Delayed recall (at least 30 min. delay)

  • Learning neologisms from context
  • Understanding the meaning of passages
  • Continuous paired-associate learning
  • Sentential inference
slide16
FLAT遭受的批評
  • 有些FLAT不能反映認知心理學新理論及發現。
  • 未將可能影響外語習得的因素,如年齡、學習動機、學習環境、學習策略等一併納入評估。
  • 語言學習能力評估未與學習成效相互印證。
  • 雖則可藉測試結果給予獲高分者更多學習時數以及瞭解其最佳學習策略,若未能有效提升個別學習者語言學習能力,對受試者並無直接助益,。
slide17
近期研究
  • Aptitude study is directed to link SLA study.
  • Skehan (1998) linked different components of aptitude to stages of information processing
    • Phonetic coding ability =Input processing
    • Analytic ability = Central processing
    • Memory- as-retrieval = Output and fluency
slide18
近期研究 (cont.)
  • Critical Period Hypothesis and Aptitude
  • Dekeyser (2000)
    • Proposition (Johnson & Newport’s 1989 study)
      • Strong negative correlation between age on arrival and level of attained proficiency up till age 17
      • There is no correlation between age on arrival and attained proficiency beyond the point.
    • Hungarian learners in the U.S.
    • No correlation between aptitude score and attained proficiency up till the age 17
    • Positive correlation between aptitude and attained proficiency after 17
    • A few subjects arrived after 17, who have reached a native-like fluency are all high aptitude scorers
slide19
結論
  • 早期研究結果顯示外語學習能力測驗可用以預估日後學習成效。
  • 然而因為認知心理學等理論的進展,外語學習能力測驗的方法仍有待改進修正。
  • 外語學習能力測驗與外語習得的關連近幾年來再度引起研究討論。
  • 未來需要更多研究證明其他因素,如年齡、學習動機、學習策略等,如何與外語學習能力共同影響外語習得成效。
reference
Reference
  • Carroll, J.B. (1990). Cognitive Ability in Foreign Language Aptitude: Then and Now. In T.S. Parry & C.W. Stansfield (eds.), Language Aptitude Reconsidered, pp. 11-29. Printice Hall Regents.
  • Carrol, J.B. & Sapon, S.M. (1959). Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT). San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.
  • DeKeyser, R. M. (2000). The robustness of critical period effects in second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22(4), pp. 499-533.
  • Grigorenko, E., R. Sternberg & M.E. Ehrman, (2000). A Theory-based Approach to the Measurement of Foreign Languaeg Learning Ability: The CANAL-F Theory and Test. Modern Language Journal, 84, pp. 390-405.
  • Harley B. & D. Hart (1997). Language Aptitude and Second Language Proficiency in Classroom Learners of Different Starting Ages. SSLA 19, pp379-400. Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Parry. T.S. & Stansfield, C.W. (ed.) (1989). Language Aptitude Reconsidered. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Printice Hall Regents/Center for Applied Linguistics.
slide21
Peterson, C.R. & Al-Haik, A.R. (1976). The Development of the Defense Language Aptitude Battery (DLAB). Educational and Psychological Measurement, 36, pp. 369-380 Pimsleur, P. (1966). Pimsleur Language Aptitude Battery, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
  • Reed, D.J. & C.W. Stansfield (2002). The Use of the Modern Language Aptitude Test in the Assessment of Foreign Language Learning Disability—What’s at Stake? Language Assessment Ethics Conference. Pasadena, California, May16-18.
  • Robinson, P (2005). Aptitude and Second Language Acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 25, pp.46-73. Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Skehan P. (in press). Theorising and updating aptitude. In Robinson P. (Ed.), Individual Differences and Instructed Second Language Acquisition. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
  • Sparks R. & L. Ganschow (2001). Aptitude for Learning a Foreign Language. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 21, pp.90-111.
  • Steinman L. & M. Smith (2001). Modern Language Aptitude Test and Manual. Canadian Modern Language Review 58.
websites
Websites
  • http://www.dlielc.org/bilc/reports2004.html
  • http://www.wisc.edu/english/rfyoung/eng-333.fall2006.syllabus.html#Course%20Outline
  • http://zh.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%E9%A6%96%E9%A1%B5&variant=zh-tw
  • http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0026-7902(200023)84%3A3%3C390%3AATATTM%3E2.0.CO%3B2-L#abstract
  • http://www.answers.com/topic/pimsleur-language-aptitude-battery
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MLAT
  • http://www.2lti.com/htm/Test_mlat.htm