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Sociology 105 PowerPoint Presentation
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Sociology 105

Sociology 105

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Sociology 105

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  1. Sociology105 Chapter 6 Crime and Deviance

  2. Deviance • This is behavior that departs from social norms; • a. Nudist Colony • b. Obesity • c. Body Piercing • Depends on social context

  3. Crime • This is behavior that violates local, state or federal statutes:

  4. Crime Key Facts Robbery Most occur in the street, are unplanned, occur within one mile of the robbers’ home: 91% of arrests are for males under 25 Burglary Only about half of all burglaries are reported, targets are near the burglars’ home, 90% of arrests are for males under 25 Homicide Only 65% of murders result in an arrest, victims are mostly black males, killers are most likely to be the same age, sex, and race as the victim Examples of Crime

  5. The Criminal Act Most involve short range choices Characteristics of the Criminal Act Most are brief in duration Most reap small but immediate rewards Most are easy to commit, simple in design, and exciting to the criminal

  6. Crime and Deviance: The Differences • Not all crimes are deviant: • a. Marijuana smoking • b. Speeding • Not all deviance is criminal: • a. Nudist colony • b. Full body tattooing

  7. Producing Deviance • How does something come to be defined as deviant (not necessarily criminal)? • Often, something becomes deviant when people are persuaded to see it as morally or socially discrediting • Sociologists call this process the social construction of deviance • Smoking as an example… • Smoking is not “inherently” deviant, it’s deviance is “socially constructed”

  8. An Example... Smoking In The Early 1970’s Non-Deviant Deviant 1. Smoking in an 1.Smoking in the presence airplane of a lady without asking 2. Smoking outdoors prior permission

  9. An Example... Smoking In The Early 1970’s Non-Deviant Deviant * Smoking outdoors *Smoking in an airplane *Smoking in the presence of a lady without asking

  10. The Steps Of Constructing An Activity As Deviant 1. The idea of a boundary must occur to someone 2. Create public horror stories 3. Create a moral panic 4. Impute responsibility to “outsiders” 5. Recruit opinion leaders 6. Develop practical responses or legislation 7. Enact legislation

  11. Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives • Social Constructionism • Differential Association-social learning (Edwin Sutherland) • Friends and relatives teach us to to deviate by rewarding us for deviant behavior and not rewarding nondeviance • Lot’s of support from research. About 50% of young defenders have deviant friends/relatives • Doesn’t explain why kids have deviant relatives & friends though • Control Theory (Walter Reckless, Travis Hirschi) • People are more likely to become delinquent when social bonds are weak • Attachments, investments, involvements, beliefs • Labeling Theory (Howard Becker)

  12. Assumptions of Labeling Theory Rules are Socially Constructed Definitions of What Constitutes Deviant Behavior Varies Across Time and Place Arbitrary Enforcement Some People Who Break Rules Are Not Detected or Not Sanctioned If They are Detected and Some Who Do Not Break Rules Are Treated As If They Had

  13. Functionalist Perspectives • Deviance is universal because it serves three important functions: • Deviance clarifies rules • Deviance unites a group • Deviance promotes social change

  14. Types of Functionalist Theory • Strain Theory (Robert Merton) • The U.S. is a materialistic country and success is often defined in terms of material wealth • People who are denied the legitimate opportunities to achieve goals “innovate” by developing deviant strategies • 5 modes of adaptation: • Critiques • Some poor people don’t turn to crime • Doesn’t explain white collar crime • Opportunity Theory (Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin) • expansion of Merton

  15. Conflict Perspective • Conflict Perspective • Point out that crime is often defined as activities of the less fortunate. But what about the fortunate? • Note that armed robbery is often punished with a heavier sentence then, say, price fixing, even though the later cost society more • Marx points to the capitalist system as inherently faulty and the cause of crime • The system must convince people to buy goods while simultaneously keeping wages low to ensure higher profits for businesses • This contradiction forces workers to turn to crime to get the things they cannot afford • Similar to anomie theory, yet differs in that it suggests that full employment won’t solve the problem. Why? • Because it’s the system that causes the problem in the 1st place.

  16. Postmodern Perspectives • Power, knowledge and social control are intertwined • The Panopticon