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  1. Sociology Chapter Three Culture

  2. Culture & Society • Culture - totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior

  3. Culture & Society • Culture - totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior • Culture helps to define and distinguish a society

  4. Culture & Society • Culture - totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior • Culture helps to define and distinguish a society • Society - largest form of human group, consisting of people who share a common heritage and culture

  5. Culture & Society • Culture - totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior • Culture helps to define and distinguish a society • Society - largest form of human group, consisting of people who share a common heritage and culture • Language is the most critical element of culture

  6. Development of Culture • Cultural universals are elements common to all societies

  7. Development of Culture • Cultural universals are elements common to all societies • Most common universals are adaptations to meet human needs

  8. Development of Culture • Cultural universals are elements common to all societies • Most common universals are adaptations to meet human needs • Ex - shelter, food, clothing

  9. Development of Culture • Cultural universals are elements common to all societies • Most common universals are adaptations to meet human needs • Ex - shelter, food, clothing • Others include sports, marriage, funeral ceremonies, etc

  10. Development of Culture • Cultural universals are elements common to all societies • Most common universals are adaptations to meet human needs • Ex - shelter, food, clothing • Others include sports, marriage, funeral ceremonies, etc • Note: the practices of and beliefs behind these elements are not necessarily common to all societies

  11. Development of Culture • Cultural universals are elements common to all societies • Most common universals are adaptations to meet human needs • Ex - shelter, food, clothing • Others include sports, marriage, funeral ceremonies, etc • Note: the practices of and beliefs behind these elements are not necessarily common to all societies • Innovation - process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture

  12. Development of Culture • Cultural universals are elements common to all societies • Most common universals are adaptations to meet human needs • Ex - shelter, food, clothing • Others include sports, marriage, funeral ceremonies, etc • Note: the practices of and beliefs behind these elements are not necessarily common to all societies • Innovation - process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture • Discovery - making known the existence of an aspect of reality

  13. Development of Culture • Cultural universals are elements common to all societies • Most common universals are adaptations to meet human needs • Ex - shelter, food, clothing • Others include sports, marriage, funeral ceremonies, etc • Note: the practices of and beliefs behind these elements are not necessarily common to all societies • Innovation - process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture • Discovery - making known the existence of an aspect of reality • Invention - when existing elements are combined into a new form

  14. Development of Culture • Cultural universals are elements common to all societies • Most common universals are adaptations to meet human needs • Ex - shelter, food, clothing • Others include sports, marriage, funeral ceremonies, etc • Note: the practices of and beliefs behind these elements are not necessarily common to all societies • Innovation - process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture • Discovery - making known the existence of an aspect of reality • Invention - when existing elements are combined into a new form • Diffusion - process by which cultural elements spread to other societies

  15. Development of Culture • Cultural universals are elements common to all societies • Most common universals are adaptations to meet human needs • Ex - shelter, food, clothing • Others include sports, marriage, funeral ceremonies, etc • Note: the practices of and beliefs behind these elements are not necessarily common to all societies • Innovation - process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture • Discovery - making known the existence of an aspect of reality • Invention - when existing elements are combined into a new form • Diffusion - process by which cultural elements spread to other societies • Technology - “cultural information about how to use the material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires” (Gehard Lenski)

  16. McDonaldization • ...McDonaldization,...is the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as of the rest of the world. (George Ritzer)

  17. McDonaldization • ...McDonaldization,...is the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as of the rest of the world. (George Ritzer) • The McDonaldization of culture refers to the blending of elements of cultures due to the effects globalization and technology

  18. Cultures at the Far End of the WorldWade Davis

  19. Material vs Nonmaterial Culture • Material culture refers to the physical and/or technological aspects of the daily life of a society (ex - food, housing, factories, etc)

  20. Material vs Nonmaterial Culture • Material culture refers to the physical and/or technological aspects of the daily life of a society (ex - food, housing, factories, etc) • Nonmaterial culture refers to the ways in which material culture is used and to the customs, beliefs, traditions, ideologies, etc of a society

  21. Material vs Nonmaterial Culture • Material culture refers to the physical and/or technological aspects of the daily life of a society (ex - food, housing, factories, etc) • Nonmaterial culture refers to the ways in which material culture is used and to the customs, beliefs, traditions, ideologies, etc of a society • Nonmaterial culture changes less frequently than material culture

  22. Material vs Nonmaterial Culture • Material culture refers to the physical and/or technological aspects of the daily life of a society (ex - food, housing, factories, etc) • Nonmaterial culture refers to the ways in which material culture is used and to the customs, beliefs, traditions, ideologies, etc of a society • Nonmaterial culture changes less frequently than material culture • Cultural lag is the period of time when nonmaterial culture struggles to adapt to new material conditions

  23. Material vs Nonmaterial Culture • Material culture refers to the physical and/or technological aspects of the daily life of a society (ex - food, housing, factories, etc) • Nonmaterial culture refers to the ways in which material culture is used and to the customs, beliefs, traditions, ideologies, etc of a society • Nonmaterial culture changes less frequently than material culture • Cultural lag is the period of time when nonmaterial culture struggles to adapt to new material conditions • Ex - beliefs related to free speech, privacy rights, and censorship (nonmaterial cultural elements) and the increased relevance of the internet on daily life (material cultural elements)

  24. Sociobiology • Controversial study of the effects of biology on human social behavior

  25. Sociobiology • Controversial study of the effects of biology on human social behavior • Ex - are women more nurturing than men?

  26. Sociobiology • Controversial study of the effects of biology on human social behavior • Ex - are women more nurturing than men? • Based on Darwin’s theory of evolution (natural selection)

  27. Sociobiology • Controversial study of the effects of biology on human social behavior • Ex - are women more nurturing than men? • Based on Darwin’s theory of evolution (natural selection) • Species that are able to adapt to changes in their environment(s) will survive, while those that are unable to adapt will perish

  28. Natural Selection

  29. Sociobiology • Controversial study of the effects of biology on human social behavior • Ex - are women more nurturing than men? • Based on Darwin’s theory of evolution (natural selection) • Species that are able to adapt to changes in their environment(s) will survive, while those that are unable to adapt will perish • Claims that all behaviors are the result of genetic adaptations

  30. Sociobiology • Controversial study of the effects of biology on human social behavior • Ex - are women more nurturing than men? • Based on Darwin’s theory of evolution (natural selection) • Species that are able to adapt to changes in their environment(s) will survive, while those that are unable to adapt will perish • Claims that all behaviors are the result of genetic adaptations • Focuses on large groups of people who share common characteristics (ex - men or women)

  31. Social Darwinism

  32. Social Darwinism

  33. Elements of Culture • Language

  34. Elements of Culture • Language • Norms

  35. Elements of Culture • Language • Norms • Sanctions

  36. Elements of Culture • Language • Norms • Sanctions • Values

  37. Elements of Culture - Language • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols

  38. Elements of Culture - Language • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols • Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions

  39. Elements of Culture - Language • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols • Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis describes the role of language in determining our interpretation of reality

  40. Elements of Culture - Language • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols • Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis describes the role of language in determining our interpretation of reality • Since we understand the world through language, language precedes thought

  41. Elements of Culture - Language • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols • Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis describes the role of language in determining our interpretation of reality • Since we understand the world through language, language precedes thought • The world of symbols, speech, etc organize the world for us

  42. Elements of Culture - Language • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols • Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis describes the role of language in determining our interpretation of reality • Since we understand the world through language, language precedes thought • The world of symbols, speech, etc organize the world for us • Language is culturally determined

  43. Elements of Culture - Language • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols • Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis describes the role of language in determining our interpretation of reality • Since we understand the world through language, language precedes thought • The world of symbols, speech, etc organize the world for us • Language is culturally determined • “Political correctness”

  44. Elements of Culture - Language • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols • Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis describes the role of language in determining our interpretation of reality • Since we understand the world through language, language precedes thought • The world of symbols, speech, etc organize the world for us • Language is culturally determined • “Political correctness” • Gender-related language - mailman, policeman, etc

  45. Elements of Culture - Language • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols • Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis describes the role of language in determining our interpretation of reality • Since we understand the world through language, language precedes thought • The world of symbols, speech, etc organize the world for us • Language is culturally determined • “Political correctness” • Gender-related language - mailman, policeman, etc • Stereotype transmissions - “black” and “white”

  46. Elements of Culture - Language • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols • Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis describes the role of language in determining our interpretation of reality • Since we understand the world through language, language precedes thought • The world of symbols, speech, etc organize the world for us • Language is culturally determined • “Political correctness” • Gender-related language - mailman, policeman, etc • Stereotype transmissions - “black” and “white” • Nonverbal communication is the use of gestures, facial expressions, etc to communicate

  47. Elements of Culture - Language • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols • Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis describes the role of language in determining our interpretation of reality • Since we understand the world through language, language precedes thought • The world of symbols, speech, etc organize the world for us • Language is culturally determined • “Political correctness” • Gender-related language - mailman, policeman, etc • Stereotype transmissions - “black” and “white” • Nonverbal communication is the use of gestures, facial expressions, etc to communicate • Varies from culture to culture

  48. Elements of Culture - Language • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols • Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis describes the role of language in determining our interpretation of reality • Since we understand the world through language, language precedes thought • The world of symbols, speech, etc organize the world for us • Language is culturally determined • “Political correctness” • Gender-related language - mailman, policeman, etc • Stereotype transmissions - “black” and “white” • Nonverbal communication is the use of gestures, facial expressions, etc to communicate • Varies from culture to culture • Read “In Their Own Words”

  49. Elements of Culture - Norms • Norms are the established standards of behavior maintained by a society

  50. Elements of Culture - Norms • Norms are the established standards of behavior maintained by a society • Significant norms must be widely shared and understood