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Sociology Chapter Three Culture Culture & Society Culture - totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior Culture & Society Culture - totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior

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sociology

Sociology

Chapter Three

Culture

culture society
Culture & Society
  • Culture - totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior
culture society3
Culture & Society
  • Culture - totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior
    • Culture helps to define and distinguish a society
culture society4
Culture & Society
  • Culture - totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior
    • Culture helps to define and distinguish a society
      • Society - largest form of human group, consisting of people who share a common heritage and culture
culture society5
Culture & Society
  • Culture - totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior
    • Culture helps to define and distinguish a society
      • Society - largest form of human group, consisting of people who share a common heritage and culture
  • Language is the most critical element of culture
development of culture
Development of Culture
  • Cultural universals are elements common to all societies
development of culture7
Development of Culture
  • Cultural universals are elements common to all societies
    • Most common universals are adaptations to meet human needs
development of culture8
Development of Culture
  • Cultural universals are elements common to all societies
    • Most common universals are adaptations to meet human needs
      • Ex - shelter, food, clothing
development of culture9
Development of Culture
  • Cultural universals are elements common to all societies
    • Most common universals are adaptations to meet human needs
      • Ex - shelter, food, clothing
    • Others include sports, marriage, funeral ceremonies, etc
development of culture10
Development of Culture
  • Cultural universals are elements common to all societies
    • Most common universals are adaptations to meet human needs
      • Ex - shelter, food, clothing
    • Others include sports, marriage, funeral ceremonies, etc
    • Note: the practices of and beliefs behind these elements are not necessarily common to all societies
development of culture11
Development of Culture
  • Cultural universals are elements common to all societies
    • Most common universals are adaptations to meet human needs
      • Ex - shelter, food, clothing
    • Others include sports, marriage, funeral ceremonies, etc
    • Note: the practices of and beliefs behind these elements are not necessarily common to all societies
  • Innovation - process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture
development of culture12
Development of Culture
  • Cultural universals are elements common to all societies
    • Most common universals are adaptations to meet human needs
      • Ex - shelter, food, clothing
    • Others include sports, marriage, funeral ceremonies, etc
    • Note: the practices of and beliefs behind these elements are not necessarily common to all societies
  • Innovation - process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture
    • Discovery - making known the existence of an aspect of reality
development of culture13
Development of Culture
  • Cultural universals are elements common to all societies
    • Most common universals are adaptations to meet human needs
      • Ex - shelter, food, clothing
    • Others include sports, marriage, funeral ceremonies, etc
    • Note: the practices of and beliefs behind these elements are not necessarily common to all societies
  • Innovation - process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture
    • Discovery - making known the existence of an aspect of reality
    • Invention - when existing elements are combined into a new form
development of culture14
Development of Culture
  • Cultural universals are elements common to all societies
    • Most common universals are adaptations to meet human needs
      • Ex - shelter, food, clothing
    • Others include sports, marriage, funeral ceremonies, etc
    • Note: the practices of and beliefs behind these elements are not necessarily common to all societies
  • Innovation - process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture
    • Discovery - making known the existence of an aspect of reality
    • Invention - when existing elements are combined into a new form
  • Diffusion - process by which cultural elements spread to other societies
development of culture15
Development of Culture
  • Cultural universals are elements common to all societies
    • Most common universals are adaptations to meet human needs
      • Ex - shelter, food, clothing
    • Others include sports, marriage, funeral ceremonies, etc
    • Note: the practices of and beliefs behind these elements are not necessarily common to all societies
  • Innovation - process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture
    • Discovery - making known the existence of an aspect of reality
    • Invention - when existing elements are combined into a new form
  • Diffusion - process by which cultural elements spread to other societies
    • Technology - “cultural information about how to use the material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires” (Gehard Lenski)
mcdonaldization
McDonaldization
  • ...McDonaldization,...is the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as of the rest of the world. (George Ritzer)
mcdonaldization17
McDonaldization
  • ...McDonaldization,...is the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as of the rest of the world. (George Ritzer)
  • The McDonaldization of culture refers to the blending of elements of cultures due to the effects globalization and technology
material vs nonmaterial culture
Material vs Nonmaterial Culture
  • Material culture refers to the physical and/or technological aspects of the daily life of a society (ex - food, housing, factories, etc)
material vs nonmaterial culture20
Material vs Nonmaterial Culture
  • Material culture refers to the physical and/or technological aspects of the daily life of a society (ex - food, housing, factories, etc)
  • Nonmaterial culture refers to the ways in which material culture is used and to the customs, beliefs, traditions, ideologies, etc of a society
material vs nonmaterial culture21
Material vs Nonmaterial Culture
  • Material culture refers to the physical and/or technological aspects of the daily life of a society (ex - food, housing, factories, etc)
  • Nonmaterial culture refers to the ways in which material culture is used and to the customs, beliefs, traditions, ideologies, etc of a society
    • Nonmaterial culture changes less frequently than material culture
material vs nonmaterial culture22
Material vs Nonmaterial Culture
  • Material culture refers to the physical and/or technological aspects of the daily life of a society (ex - food, housing, factories, etc)
  • Nonmaterial culture refers to the ways in which material culture is used and to the customs, beliefs, traditions, ideologies, etc of a society
    • Nonmaterial culture changes less frequently than material culture
  • Cultural lag is the period of time when nonmaterial culture struggles to adapt to new material conditions
material vs nonmaterial culture23
Material vs Nonmaterial Culture
  • Material culture refers to the physical and/or technological aspects of the daily life of a society (ex - food, housing, factories, etc)
  • Nonmaterial culture refers to the ways in which material culture is used and to the customs, beliefs, traditions, ideologies, etc of a society
    • Nonmaterial culture changes less frequently than material culture
  • Cultural lag is the period of time when nonmaterial culture struggles to adapt to new material conditions
    • Ex - beliefs related to free speech, privacy rights, and censorship (nonmaterial cultural elements) and the increased relevance of the internet on daily life (material cultural elements)
sociobiology
Sociobiology
  • Controversial study of the effects of biology on human social behavior
sociobiology25
Sociobiology
  • Controversial study of the effects of biology on human social behavior
    • Ex - are women more nurturing than men?
sociobiology26
Sociobiology
  • Controversial study of the effects of biology on human social behavior
    • Ex - are women more nurturing than men?
  • Based on Darwin’s theory of evolution (natural selection)
sociobiology27
Sociobiology
  • Controversial study of the effects of biology on human social behavior
    • Ex - are women more nurturing than men?
  • Based on Darwin’s theory of evolution (natural selection)
    • Species that are able to adapt to changes in their environment(s) will survive, while those that are unable to adapt will perish
sociobiology29
Sociobiology
  • Controversial study of the effects of biology on human social behavior
    • Ex - are women more nurturing than men?
  • Based on Darwin’s theory of evolution (natural selection)
    • Species that are able to adapt to changes in their environment(s) will survive, while those that are unable to adapt will perish
  • Claims that all behaviors are the result of genetic adaptations
sociobiology30
Sociobiology
  • Controversial study of the effects of biology on human social behavior
    • Ex - are women more nurturing than men?
  • Based on Darwin’s theory of evolution (natural selection)
    • Species that are able to adapt to changes in their environment(s) will survive, while those that are unable to adapt will perish
  • Claims that all behaviors are the result of genetic adaptations
  • Focuses on large groups of people who share common characteristics (ex - men or women)
elements of culture34
Elements of Culture
  • Language
  • Norms
elements of culture35
Elements of Culture
  • Language
  • Norms
  • Sanctions
elements of culture36
Elements of Culture
  • Language
  • Norms
  • Sanctions
  • Values
elements of culture language
Elements of Culture - Language
  • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols
elements of culture language38
Elements of Culture - Language
  • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols
    • Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions
elements of culture language39
Elements of Culture - Language
  • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols
    • Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions
  • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis describes the role of language in determining our interpretation of reality
elements of culture language40
Elements of Culture - Language
  • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols
    • Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions
  • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis describes the role of language in determining our interpretation of reality
    • Since we understand the world through language, language precedes thought
elements of culture language41
Elements of Culture - Language
  • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols
    • Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions
  • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis describes the role of language in determining our interpretation of reality
    • Since we understand the world through language, language precedes thought
      • The world of symbols, speech, etc organize the world for us
elements of culture language42
Elements of Culture - Language
  • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols
    • Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions
  • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis describes the role of language in determining our interpretation of reality
    • Since we understand the world through language, language precedes thought
      • The world of symbols, speech, etc organize the world for us
    • Language is culturally determined
elements of culture language43
Elements of Culture - Language
  • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols
    • Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions
  • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis describes the role of language in determining our interpretation of reality
    • Since we understand the world through language, language precedes thought
      • The world of symbols, speech, etc organize the world for us
    • Language is culturally determined
      • “Political correctness”
elements of culture language44
Elements of Culture - Language
  • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols
    • Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions
  • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis describes the role of language in determining our interpretation of reality
    • Since we understand the world through language, language precedes thought
      • The world of symbols, speech, etc organize the world for us
    • Language is culturally determined
      • “Political correctness”
      • Gender-related language - mailman, policeman, etc
elements of culture language45
Elements of Culture - Language
  • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols
    • Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions
  • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis describes the role of language in determining our interpretation of reality
    • Since we understand the world through language, language precedes thought
      • The world of symbols, speech, etc organize the world for us
    • Language is culturally determined
      • “Political correctness”
      • Gender-related language - mailman, policeman, etc
      • Stereotype transmissions - “black” and “white”
elements of culture language46
Elements of Culture - Language
  • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols
    • Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions
  • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis describes the role of language in determining our interpretation of reality
    • Since we understand the world through language, language precedes thought
      • The world of symbols, speech, etc organize the world for us
    • Language is culturally determined
      • “Political correctness”
      • Gender-related language - mailman, policeman, etc
      • Stereotype transmissions - “black” and “white”
  • Nonverbal communication is the use of gestures, facial expressions, etc to communicate
elements of culture language47
Elements of Culture - Language
  • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols
    • Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions
  • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis describes the role of language in determining our interpretation of reality
    • Since we understand the world through language, language precedes thought
      • The world of symbols, speech, etc organize the world for us
    • Language is culturally determined
      • “Political correctness”
      • Gender-related language - mailman, policeman, etc
      • Stereotype transmissions - “black” and “white”
  • Nonverbal communication is the use of gestures, facial expressions, etc to communicate
    • Varies from culture to culture
elements of culture language48
Elements of Culture - Language
  • Language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols
    • Includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and nonverbal gestures and expressions
  • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis describes the role of language in determining our interpretation of reality
    • Since we understand the world through language, language precedes thought
      • The world of symbols, speech, etc organize the world for us
    • Language is culturally determined
      • “Political correctness”
      • Gender-related language - mailman, policeman, etc
      • Stereotype transmissions - “black” and “white”
  • Nonverbal communication is the use of gestures, facial expressions, etc to communicate
    • Varies from culture to culture
    • Read “In Their Own Words”
elements of culture norms
Elements of Culture - Norms
  • Norms are the established standards of behavior maintained by a society
elements of culture norms50
Elements of Culture - Norms
  • Norms are the established standards of behavior maintained by a society
  • Significant norms must be widely shared and understood
elements of culture norms51
Elements of Culture - Norms
  • Norms are the established standards of behavior maintained by a society
  • Significant norms must be widely shared and understood
  • Two types of norms
elements of culture norms52
Elements of Culture - Norms
  • Norms are the established standards of behavior maintained by a society
  • Significant norms must be widely shared and understood
  • Two types of norms
    • Formal norms - usually written down and specify specific punishments for violations (ex - laws, contest rules, etc)
elements of culture norms53
Elements of Culture - Norms
  • Norms are the established standards of behavior maintained by a society
  • Significant norms must be widely shared and understood
  • Two types of norms
    • Formal norms - usually written down and specify specific punishments for violations (ex - laws, contest rules, etc)
    • Informal norms - generally understood rules of society (dress, “cell phone etiquette”, etc)
elements of culture norms54
Elements of Culture - Norms
  • Norms are the established standards of behavior maintained by a society
  • Significant norms must be widely shared and understood
  • Two types of norms
    • Formal norms - usually written down and specify specific punishments for violations (ex - laws, contest rules, etc)
    • Informal norms - generally understood rules of society (dress, “cell phone etiquette”, etc)
  • Mores - norms regarded as highly necessary for society (ex - laws against murder, rape, etc)
elements of culture norms55
Elements of Culture - Norms
  • Norms are the established standards of behavior maintained by a society
  • Significant norms must be widely shared and understood
  • Two types of norms
    • Formal norms - usually written down and specify specific punishments for violations (ex - laws, contest rules, etc)
    • Informal norms - generally understood rules of society (dress, “cell phone etiquette”, etc)
    • Mores - norms regarded as highly necessary for society (ex - laws against murder, rape, etc)
    • Folkways - norms governing everyday behavior (ex - ascending or descending staircases on the right-hand side, etc)
elements of culture norms56
Elements of Culture - Norms
  • Norms are the established standards of behavior maintained by a society
  • Significant norms must be widely shared and understood
  • Two types of norms
    • Formal norms - usually written down and specify specific punishments for violations (ex - laws, contest rules, etc)
    • Informal norms - generally understood rules of society (dress, “cell phone etiquette”, etc)
  • Mores - norms regarded as highly necessary for society (ex - laws against murder, rape, etc)
  • Folkways - norms governing everyday behavior (ex - ascending or descending staircases on the right-hand side, etc)
  • Acceptance of norms depends on situations
elements of culture norms57
Elements of Culture - Norms
  • Norms are the established standards of behavior maintained by a society
  • Significant norms must be widely shared and understood
  • Two types of norms
    • Formal norms - usually written down and specify specific punishments for violations (ex - laws, contest rules, etc)
    • Informal norms - generally understood rules of society (dress, “cell phone etiquette”, etc)
  • Mores - norms regarded as highly necessary for society (ex - laws against murder, rape, etc)
  • Folkways - norms governing everyday behavior (ex - ascending or descending staircases on the right-hand side, etc)
  • Acceptance of norms depends on situations
    • Norms may conflict with one another (ex - intervene or “mind own business”)
elements of culture norms58
Elements of Culture - Norms
  • Norms are the established standards of behavior maintained by a society
  • Significant norms must be widely shared and understood
  • Two types of norms
    • Formal norms - usually written down and specify specific punishments for violations (ex - laws, contest rules, etc)
    • Informal norms - generally understood rules of society (dress, “cell phone etiquette”, etc)
  • Mores - norms regarded as highly necessary for society (ex - laws against murder, rape, etc)
  • Folkways - norms governing everyday behavior (ex - ascending or descending staircases on the right-hand side, etc)
  • Acceptance of norms depends on situations
    • Norms may conflict with one another (ex - intervene or “mind own business”)
    • Norms may have exceptions (ex - use of torture)
elements of culture norms59
Elements of Culture - Norms
  • Norms are the established standards of behavior maintained by a society
  • Significant norms must be widely shared and understood
  • Two types of norms
    • Formal norms - usually written down and specify specific punishments for violations (ex - laws, contest rules, etc)
    • Informal norms - generally understood rules of society (dress, “cell phone etiquette”, etc)
  • Mores - norms regarded as highly necessary for society (ex - laws against murder, rape, etc)
  • Folkways - norms governing everyday behavior (ex - ascending or descending staircases on the right-hand side, etc)
  • Acceptance of norms depends on situations
    • Norms may conflict with one another (ex - intervene or “mind own business”)
    • Norms may have exceptions (ex - use of torture)
    • Norms are subject to social climate (ex - same-sex marriages)
elements of culture sanctions values
Elements of Culture - Sanctions & Values
  • Sanctions are penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a specific norm
elements of culture sanctions values61
Elements of Culture - Sanctions & Values
  • Sanctions are penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a specific norm
  • Generally, only the most culturally significant norms will carry sanctions
elements of culture sanctions values62
Elements of Culture - Sanctions & Values
  • Sanctions are penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a specific norm
  • Generally, only the most culturally significant norms will carry sanctions
  • Values are what society considers to be good, beneficial and desirable - or bad, detrimental, and abhorrent - in a culture
elements of culture sanctions values63
Elements of Culture - Sanctions & Values
  • Sanctions are penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a specific norm
  • Generally, only the most culturally significant norms will carry sanctions
  • Values are what society considers to be good, beneficial and desirable - or bad, detrimental, and abhorrent - in a culture
  • Although norms and sanctions may change often, values (generally) remain constant
cultural variation
Cultural Variation
  • Refers to the unique characteristics of cultures within societies
cultural variation65
Cultural Variation
  • Refers to the unique characteristics of cultures within societies
  • Subcultures are smaller segments of society that share distinctive languages (argots), norms, sanctions, and/or values of larger society
cultural variation66
Cultural Variation
  • Refers to the unique characteristics of cultures within societies
  • Subcultures are smaller segments of society that share distinctive languages (argots), norms, sanctions, and/or values of larger society
      • Argots are distinctive languages of subcultures (ex - slang, internet/text chat, etc)
cultural variation67
Cultural Variation
  • Refers to the unique characteristics of cultures within societies
  • Subcultures are smaller segments of society that share distinctive languages (argots), norms, sanctions, and/or values of larger society
      • Argots are distinctive languages of subcultures (ex - slang, internet/text chat, etc)
    • Various arguments as to why subcultures exist
cultural variation68
Cultural Variation
  • Refers to the unique characteristics of cultures within societies
  • Subcultures are smaller segments of society that share distinctive languages (argots), norms, sanctions, and/or values of larger society
      • Argots are distinctive languages of subcultures (ex - slang, internet/text chat, etc)
    • Various arguments as to why subcultures exist
  • Countercultures are subcultures that deliberately oppose certain aspects of larger society
cultural variation69
Cultural Variation
  • Refers to the unique characteristics of cultures within societies
  • Subcultures are smaller segments of society that share distinctive languages (argots), norms, sanctions, and/or values of larger society
      • Argots are distinctive languages of subcultures (ex - slang, internet/text chat, etc)
    • Various arguments as to why subcultures exist
  • Countercultures are subcultures that deliberately oppose certain aspects of larger society
  • Culture Shock refers to a state of disorientation or uncertainty that occurs when one is immersed in an unfamiliar culture
cultural variation70
Cultural Variation
  • Refers to the unique characteristics of cultures within societies
  • Subcultures are smaller segments of society that share distinctive languages (argots), norms, sanctions, and/or values of larger society
      • Argots are distinctive languages of subcultures (ex - slang, internet/text chat, etc)
    • Various arguments as to why subcultures exist
  • Countercultures are subcultures that deliberately oppose certain aspects of larger society
  • Culture Shock refers to a state of disorientation or uncertainty that occurs when one is immersed in an unfamiliar culture
  • Responses to cultural variation
cultural variation71
Cultural Variation
  • Refers to the unique characteristics of cultures within societies
  • Subcultures are smaller segments of society that share distinctive languages (argots), norms, sanctions, and/or values of larger society
      • Argots are distinctive languages of subcultures (ex - slang, internet/text chat, etc)
    • Various arguments as to why subcultures exist
  • Countercultures are subcultures that deliberately oppose certain aspects of larger society
  • Culture Shock refers to a state of disorientation or uncertainty that occurs when one is immersed in an unfamiliar culture
  • Responses to cultural variation
    • Ethnocentrism refers to the tendency to assume that the characteristics of one’s culture are superior to those of another
cultural variation72
Cultural Variation
  • Refers to the unique characteristics of cultures within societies
  • Subcultures are smaller segments of society that share distinctive languages (argots), norms, sanctions, and/or values of larger society
      • Argots are distinctive languages of subcultures (ex - slang, internet/text chat, etc)
    • Various arguments as to why subcultures exist
  • Countercultures are subcultures that deliberately oppose certain aspects of larger society
  • Culture Shock refers to a state of disorientation or uncertainty that occurs when one is immersed in an unfamiliar culture
  • Responses to cultural variation
    • Ethnocentrism refers to the tendency to assume that the characteristics of one’s culture are superior to those of another
      • Ex - “western” democracy
cultural variation73
Cultural Variation
  • Refers to the unique characteristics of cultures within societies
  • Subcultures are smaller segments of society that share distinctive languages (argots), norms, sanctions, and/or values of larger society
      • Argots are distinctive languages of subcultures (ex - slang, internet/text chat, etc)
    • Various arguments as to why subcultures exist
  • Countercultures are subcultures that deliberately oppose certain aspects of larger society
  • Culture Shock refers to a state of disorientation or uncertainty that occurs when one is immersed in an unfamiliar culture
  • Responses to cultural variation
    • Ethnocentrism refers to the tendency to assume that the characteristics of one’s culture are superior to those of another
      • Ex - “western” democracy
    • Cultural Relativism views people’s behavior from the perspective of their own culture
cultural variation74
Cultural Variation
  • Refers to the unique characteristics of cultures within societies
  • Subcultures are smaller segments of society that share distinctive languages (argots), norms, sanctions, and/or values of larger society
      • Argots are distinctive languages of subcultures (ex - slang, internet/text chat, etc)
    • Various arguments as to why subcultures exist
  • Countercultures are subcultures that deliberately oppose certain aspects of larger society
  • Culture Shock refers to a state of disorientation or uncertainty that occurs when one is immersed in an unfamiliar culture
  • Responses to cultural variation
    • Ethnocentrism refers to the tendency to assume that the characteristics of one’s culture are superior to those of another
      • Ex - “western” democracy
    • Cultural Relativism views people’s behavior from the perspective of their own culture
      • Ex - “fundamentalist” Islam