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Chapter 2

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  1. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Chapter 2 Microphones

  2. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Objectives Describe the main characteristics of any microphone: directionality, element, impedance, and frequency response. Describe a variety of microphone formats and name several situations that would require the use of each microphone.

  3. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Objectives Demonstrate the proper use of microphones. Create an on-camera interview segment using a camcorder, a microphone, and a tripod.

  4. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Microphones Microphones are designed to work in different settings. There is no “best” or “perfect” microphone for all situations.

  5. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition “Collection” and “Selection” Develop a collection of microphones, and select the best microphone for each situation. Just like a fisherman has a variety of lures in his tackle box, a TV studio should have several microphones!

  6. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Microphone Directionality Omnidirectional – collects sound from all around; 360 degrees.

  7. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Microphone Directionality Omnidirectional – microphone can be shared by the group

  8. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Microphone Directionality Unidirectional – collects most of the sound from the front, and very little from the back and sides.

  9. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Microphone Directionality Unidirectional – usually a single-source mic, or used in interviews.

  10. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Microphone Element The part of the microphone that changes sound waves into electrical energy.

  11. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Microphone Element Dynamic Element Durable Good with loud noises Good/average sound quality Usually handheld

  12. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Microphone Element Condenser Element Excellent sound quality More fragile Not as good with loud sound A favorite of singers

  13. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Condenser microphones require a power source. Electret condenser – power from a battery Phantom-power condenser – power from the audio mixer

  14. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Microphone Impedance High impedance Low impedance The two are not compatible! The impedance of the microphones must match the impedance of the sound system.

  15. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Microphone Impedance • High impedance • portable audiosystems • consumer and some professional camcorders • cable runs of 30 feet and less

  16. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Microphone Impedance • Low impedance • high quality • professional audio systems (theatres, TV studios, etc.) • professional camcorders • longer cable runs

  17. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Microphone Impedance Connectors Low impedance systems almost always use the XLR connector. High impedance systems almost always use ¼ inch phone connectors or 1/8 inch mini connectors.

  18. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Microphone Impedance Some microphones are dual-impedance – they can be switched from high to low impedance using a 3-way on/off switch. Image provided courtesy of Shure Incorporated.

  19. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Microphone Impedance A matching line transformer can be used to convert the impedance of a microphone. This example converts a low impedance microphone to high impedance. A high-to-low transformer is also available. Image provided courtesy of Shure Incorporated.

  20. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Microphone Frequency Response A microphone’s ability to hear tones (high and low) across the audible spectrum.

  21. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Microphone Frequency Response The human ear can hear the range of 20Hz (low bass notes) to 20,000Hz (high notes).

  22. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Microphone Frequency Response Microphones can be compared to that range. Generally speaking, condenser microphones have a better frequency response than dynamic microphones.

  23. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Microphones Describing each microphone • Directionality • Element • Impedance • Frequency Response

  24. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Types of Microphones (microphone formats) Handheld Microphone Available in… Omnidirectional and unidirectional, Dynamic and condenser, High impedance and low impedance, Various frequency ranges.

  25. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Types of Microphones (microphone formats) Lavaliere (Tie-Pin) Microphone • Omnidirectional, • Almost always condenser, • Advantages: • Small size • Hands-free • No skill required

  26. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Types of Microphones (microphone formats) Surface Mount Microphone Flat back, designed to lay flat on a table. Great for recording group discussions.

  27. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Types of Microphones (microphone formats) Pressure Zone Microphone (PZM) Microphone points downward and collects sound that bounces off the plate. Another great group discussion microphone.

  28. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Types of Microphones (microphone formats) Shotgun Microphone Extremely unidirectional microphone Great for videotaping guest speaker and presentations Can be camera-mounted Wear headphones!

  29. 3 3 1 1 2 2 Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Types of Microphones (microphone formats) Wireless Microphone System Components Microphone Transmitter Receiving station Transmitter and receiving station are tuned to the same radio frequency.

  30. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Types of Microphones (microphone formats) Wireless Microphone System Handheld or lavaliere A favorite of entertainers and reporters Be aware of power needs. Environmental factors can impact range. Practice with your wireless microphone system in a variety of situations.

  31. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Using Microphones Know your microphones. Select the best microphone for each situation. Wear headphones.

  32. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Using Microphones Handle your microphones carefully. Test your microphones by speaking into them. (Never hit, slap, or blow into a microphone!)

  33. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Using Microphones Carefully connect your microphone. Don’t put the excessive weight of adapters onto the microphone jack. Use a microphone extension cable instead.

  34. Television Production: A Classroom Approach, 2nd edition Using Microphones Use a windscreen when recording outdoors. Use the correct talent-to-microphone distance(six inches) from the source Mic a source – not an area.