STRUCTURED GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL LEARNING THROUGH STUDIO TIME An investigation into studio time design and student engagement in tasks Researchers: Liz Melchior, Delia Baskerville, Liz Thevenard, Vicki Thorpe Research Assistant: Tara Evans
Presentation Overview Background Methodology Themes Findings Recommendations
Background Defining studio time Historical perspectives Aims Use of studio time Student perceptions vs coordinator intentions Evidence to influence future design
Literature Review Teacher education University model
Methodology • Case study • Research participants • Data collection • Data analysis “Case study research in education is conducted so that specific issues and problems of practice can be identified and explained”(Merriam, 1998, p.34).
Findings • Task design important • Correlation between student and coordinator responses
Themes • Organisation and content • Belief • Practice • Critique 2. Recommendations
Organisation and Content: Belief Pre-service teachers “…contact time with our lecturers has been cut, and so this is a way of our lecturers making sure that we get the work through to us that we need to learn and we need to know.” • Designed to save money • Structured independent or group work • Consolidation of learning • Practical experiences Course coordinators “Studio time essentially was meant to give us more time and keep the students from losing time. And it probably hasn't succeeded in either area.” • Designed to free lecturers up for research • Set tasks to apply theory to practice • Taking learning to a deeper level • Practical experiences
Organisation and Content: Practice Pre-service teachers “We don’t just want to be reading in studio time...we can do this at home!” • Practical, useable, structured activities • Group tasks • Lecturers present for at least part of the time Course coordinators “What I want them to do in studio time, and what makes it valuable, is to actually critique and interact with each other.” • Structured, practical activities • Group interaction • Demonstrations/practical workshops
Organisation and Content: Critique Pre-service teachers “If studio-time is poorly organised students don’t turn up.” Studio time works when: • Clear expectations • Flow-on from lectures • Well organised groups • All contribute Studio time does not work when: • No accountability • Timetabling problematic Course coordinators “The majority of students we get in primary have no expertise within particular curriculum areas...have little confidence...” • Student cohorts have different needs • Student accountability • Lecturer feedback • No time for research
Recommendations Pre-service teachers “I want to learn from teachers how to teach, and I want you to show me and, and then let’s practice it, and let’s do it.” Studio time should focus on theory in practice: • Purposeful tasks • Accountability • Details in course outlines Course coordinators “There must be adequate supervision to ensure best practice.” Studio time design should be more flexible to meet student needs: • Lecturer collaboration and innovation • Accountability • Details in course outlines
Implications “The idea, or habit, still held by the majority of teacher training institutions is that if they teach about learning and teaching in a clear and transmissive way, student teachers will make the effort to put this knowledge into their own practice” (Schelfhout, Dochy, Janssens, Struyven, Guelen & Sierens, 2006, p. 877). “It’s a bit like teaching someone to drive a car by reading a book.”
References Korthagen, F., Loughran, J. & Russell, T. (2006). Developing fundamental principles for teacher education programs and practices. Teaching and Teacher Education 22(2006) 1020-1041. Merriam, S. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education revised and expanded from case study research in education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Phillips, R. (2005). Challenging the primacy of lecture: the dissonance between theory and practice in university teaching. JUTLP, 2:1, 1-13 Reid, D.J. & Johnston, M. (1991). Improving Teaching in higher education: student and teacher perspectives. Educational Studies, 25: 3 (1999), 269-281. Schelfhout, W., Dochy, F., Janssens, S., Struyven, K., Guelen, S. & Sierens, E. (2006). Educating for learning-focused teaching in teacher training: The need to link learning context with practical experiences within an inductive approach. Teaching and Teacher Education 22(2006) 1020-1041. Tillema H. (2000). Belief change towards self-directed learning in student teachers: immersion in practice or reflection on action. Teaching and Teacher Education 16 (2000) 575-591. Tillema, H. & Kremer-Hayon, L (2002) “Practising what we preach” – teacher educators’ dilemma in promoting self-regulating learning: a cross case comparison. Teaching and Teacher Education 18 (2002) 593-607.