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5 th edition text. ~24,000 species. Tetrapods. Teleosts. lobe-fin fishes. ray-fin fishes. ray-fin fish lobe-fin fish extinct lobe-fin fish extinct early tetrapod. fin rays digits. ”early actinopterygians”. lobe-fins. ray-fins. bichirs and reedfishes freshwater (150 MYA). North

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Tetrapods


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    1. 5th edition text ~24,000 species Tetrapods Teleosts lobe-fin fishes ray-fin fishes

    2. ray-fin fish lobe-fin fish extinct lobe-fin fish extinct early tetrapod fin rays digits

    3. ”early actinopterygians” lobe-fins ray-fins

    4. bichirs and reedfishes freshwater (150 MYA) North America Eurasia Australia Africa South America cladogram for major continents

    5. Polypteriformes ~16 sp 2 genera aka ropefish similar to bichir larval stage

    6. skeleton: cartilage, bone scales: ganoid fins: “lobed”

    7. unique = independent origin

    8. gular plates lobed fins

    9. bichirs Polypterus sp. spiracles (~elasmobranchs) spiral valve intestine ventral lungs and gills

    10. Sarcopterygii Actinopterygii African Australian African bichir South American lungs gills always external larval gills

    11. reedfish Erpetoichthys calabaricus external gills as adult neoteny?

    12. “early actinopterygians” lobe-fins ray-fins

    13. gars also Central America North America Eurasia Present day ~400 MYA Australia Africa South America cladogram for major continents

    14. NEAq spotted gar Lepisosteus oculatus longnose gar Lepisosteus osseus

    15. Lepisosteiformes ~7 sp. FW bone skeleton interlocking vertebrae (~reptiles, load-bearing) extended body and snout

    16. anterior nostrils numerous teeth

    17. spiral valve intestine diamond-shaped ganoid scales (native american arrowheads)

    18. scales PLACOID GANOID ELASMOID enamel/dentine ganoine/bone enamel/bone

    19. African Australian African bichir South American lungs gills certain stages always American gar always • buoyancy • respiration external larval gills dorsal lung

    20. heart gars: up to 72 valves

    21. oviparity toxic eggs? adhesive disk larval stage

    22. distribution Great lakes to Gulf of Mexico

    23. longnose gar Lepisosteus osseus 50 lbs, 2 m spotted gar Lepisosteus oculatus 6 lbs >1 m East: introduced NEAq

    24. Atractosteus spatulaalligator gar     MCZ specimen ~3 m length

    25. ‘lie-in-wait’ or ‘ambush’ predators double-breasted cormorant with gar

    26. gar pike-characin pike or pickerel needflefish pike killifish barracuda pike-head Example: convergent evolution distant relatives converge

    27. Example: divergent evolution close relatives diverge

    28. fossils from late Paleozoic >250 MYA

    29. “early actinopterygians”

    30. Early Actinopterygii sturgeon bowfin gar

    31. sturgeon and paddlefish gars bowfin North America Eurasia Present day ~400 MYA Australia Africa South America cladogram for major continents

    32. laurentian distribution sturgeon and paddlefishes NA, Asia gars NA, CA bowfin NA

    33. Early Osteichthyes Tetrapods Teleosts lobe-fin fishes ray-fin fishes

    34. MSC Biology of Fishes at NEAq