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The Allies win WWII. Ch. 32.4. North Africa. The Desert Fox, Erwin Rommel secured the city, Tobruk, for Germany. The Allies responded by sending Bernard Montgomery, ‘Monty’ to take control of British forces. Rommel. Monty. Battle of El Alamein.

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north africa
North Africa
  • The Desert Fox, Erwin Rommel secured the city, Tobruk, for Germany.
  • The Allies responded by sending Bernard Montgomery, ‘Monty’ to take control of British forces.
battle of el alamein
Battle of El Alamein
  • On the night of October 23, more than 1,700 British guns took Axis soldiers by surprise.
  • By November 3, Rommel’s army had been beaten.
  • Rommel retreated.
operation torch
Operation Torch
  • On November 8, more than 107,000 Allied troops landed in Morocco and Algeria.
  • Led by General Dwight D. Eisenhower.
  • Rommel’s army was caught between the two armies.
  • The Africa Korps was finally destroyed in May 1943.
battle of stalingrad
Battle of Stalingrad
  • Began on August 23, 1942
  • Luftwaffe went on nightly bombing raids that set much of the city ablaze and reduced the rest to rubble.
  • By early November 1942, Germans controlled 90% of the ruined city.
  • Then the Russian winter came.
no retreat
No Retreat!
  • On November 19, Soviet troops launched a counterattack.
  • They closed in around Stalingrad and trapped the Germans inside.
  • They cut off supply lines.
  • Hitler refused the retreat, the city was “to be held at all costs.”
german troops surrendered to soviets
German troops surrendered to Soviets
  • February 2, 1942, 90,000 frostbitten, half-starved German troops surrendered to the Soviets.
  • 240,000 German soldiers died.
  • 1 million Soviet soldiers died.
  • While the city was defended, it was totally destroyed.
  • On July 10, 1943, Allied forces of 180,000 soldiers landed on Sicily and captured it from Italian and German troops in less than 1 month.
  • Only July 25, King Victor Emmanuel III fired Mussolini and had him arrested.
allies seize rome
Allies seize Rome
  • The Germans seized control of northern Italy and put Mussolini back in charge.
  • The Allies took over Rome on June 4, 1944.
  • On September 3, Italy surrendered.
  • Fighting in Italy continued until after Germany fell in May 1945.
mussolini killed
Mussolini killed
  • On April 28, 1945, as the Germans were retreating from northern Italy, the Italian resistance ambushed some trucks.
  • The resistance fighters found Mussolini disguised as a German soldier.
  • The following day, he was shot, and his body was hanged in the Milan town square.
total war
Total War
  • In the U.S. factories converted their peacetime operations to wartime productions and made everything from machine guns to boots.
  • Automobile factories produced tanks.
  • A U.S. typewriter company made armor piercing shells.
  • By 1944, almost 18 million U.S. workers were working in war industries.
  • Many of them were women.




Nylon stockings

Laundry soap

Speed limit was 35 miles per hour helped save on gasoline and rubber.

citizens help war effort
Citizens help war effort
  • Moscow youngster collected enough scrap metal to produce 14,000 artillery shells.
  • Another Russian family used their life savings to buy a tank for the Red Army.
  • In the U.S. people bought government war stamps and bonds to help finance the war.
pearl harbor
Pearl Harbor
  • December 7, 1941
  • A date which will live in infamy!
  • 2400 soldiers died
  • 1000 wounded (movie scene) (2;00)

civil rights violated
Civil Rights Violated
  • Forced imprisonment of Japanese Americans living on the U.S. Pacific Coast.
  • In 1941, 119,000 people of Japanese ancestry lived in CA, OR, and WA.
  • 1/3 had been born in Japan, but most were American citizens.

Anti-Japanese feelings among politicians and residents was the force behind the decision.

As a result of this pressure, on February 19, 1942, President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, which resulted in the forcible internment of 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry.


More than two-thirds of those interned under the Executive Order were citizens of the United States, and none had ever shown any disloyalty.

The War Relocation Authority was created to administer the assembly centers, relocation centers, and internment camps, and relocation of Japanese-Americans began in April 1942.


All people of Japanese descent living on the West Coast were ordered to detention camps in WY, UT, AZ, and other states.

Because Hawaii’s Japanese population was too large to relocate, the state of HI was under martial law throughout the duration of the war.


Did you know that a

Japanese Concentration Camp

was located in

Sacaton, AZ?

It was called the Gila River

Internment Camp

Internment camps were scattered all over the interior West, in isolated desert areas of Arizona, California, Utah, Idaho, Colorado, and Wyoming.

Japanese-Americans were forced to carry on their lives under harsh conditions.

Executive Order 9066 was rescinded by President Roosevelt in 1944, and the last of the camps was closed in March, 1946.


Sue Tokushige was a young mother of 20, with a 10-day-old baby, when she was sent to a camp in Arizona with her husband.

She said the government did not supply milk for her baby. Because she was unable to breastfeed, she fed her daughter only water for 10 days.

She recalls with glassy eyes how a doctor told her that, for a person who seemed well-educated, she did not take good care of her baby.

'My daughter still pays for it today, health-wise, for the way our government treated us’.


Some Japanese Americans died in the camps due to inadequate medical care and the emotional stresses they encountered.

Several were killed by military guards posted for allegedly resisting orders.


Children had to be educated, yet the government did not supply teachers. 

Instead, they looked to the camp members to fill these types of positions and paid them at extremely low wages.

If you had two or more years of college you might become an "assistant teacher" who in some cases assumed a full teaching load.


WRA Relocation Centers

Name State Opened Max. Pop'n

Manzanar California March 1942 10,046

Tule Lake California May 1942 18,789

Poston Arizona May 1942 17,814

Gila River Arizona July 1942 13,348

Granada Colorado August 1942 7,318

Heart Mountain Wyoming August 1942 10,767

Minidoka Idaho August 1942 9,397

Topaz Utah September 1942 8,130

Rohwer Arkansas September 1942 8,475

Jerome Arkansas October 1942 8,497

pat morita
Pat Morita

Imprisoned at Gila River Concentration Camp during WWII

allies liberate europe

Allies sent fake coded messages indicating they would attack here

  • Even as the Allies were battling for Italy, they began plans on a dramatic invasion of France
  • It was known as “Operation Overlord” and the commander was American General Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • Also called “D-Day,” the operation involved 3 million U.S. & British troops and was set for June 6, 1944
d day june 6 1944
D-DAY JUNE 6, 1944
  • D-Day was the largest land-sea-air operation in military history
  • Despite air support, German retaliation was brutal – especially at Omaha Beach
  • Within a month, the Allies had landed 1 million troops, 567,000 tons of supplies and 170,000 vehicles

D-Day was an amphibious landing – soldiers going from sea to land

may 1944
May 1944
  • Thousands of planes, ships, tanks, landing craft, and 3.5 million troops awaited orders for attack.
  • American General Dwight D. Eisenhower planned to strike the coast of Normandy, in northwestern France.
The Germans knew that an attack was coming, but they didn’t know where.
  • To keep Hitler guessing, the Allies set up dummy army with its own headquarters and equipment.
  • They ordered the make-believe army to attack at the French Seaport of Calais.
operation overlord
Operation Overlord
  • The invasion of Normandy was the greatest land and sea attack in history.
  • It is known as D-Day.
  • June 6, 1944.
d day

“The eyes of the world are upon you. The hopes and prayers of liberty-loving people everywhere march with you. In company with our brave Allies and brothers-in-arms on other Fronts, you will bring about the destruction of the German war machine, the elimination of Nazi tyranny over the oppressed peoples of Europe, and security for ourselves in a free world.”

  • -Eisenhower
At dawn on June 6, British, American, French, and Canadian troops fought their way onto a 60 mile stretch of beach in Normandy.
captain joseph dawson
Captain Joseph Dawson
  • “The beach was a total chaos, with men’s bodies everywhere, with wounded men crying both in the water and on the coarse gravel.”
samuel fuller time magazine 1944
Samuel Fuller (Time Magazine 1944)
  • “The only way to get off the beach was to blow a big tank trap that was blocking our way. Finally one of our guys took the trap out…I stood up and tried to run. When you run over unconscious men, or men lying on their bellies, it’s tough to keep your balance. You go into the water, but the water is washing bodies in and bodies out. Bodies, heads, flesh, intestines; that’s what Omaha beach was.”
Despite the heavy casualties, the Allies held up.
  • A month later, more than 1 million additional troops landed.
  • On July 25, the Allies punched a hole in the German defenses.
general george patton
General George Patton
  • Patton’s third army raced through.
  • Soon the Germans were retreating.
  • On August 25, the Allies marched triumphantly down the streets of Paris.
  • By September, they had liberated France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands.
battle of the bulge
Battle of the Bulge
  • Hitler faced a war on two fronts.
  • The Allied forces came in on the West.
  • The Soviet forces came in on the East.
  • Hitler decided to counterattack in the West, against the Allies.
  • On December 16, German tanks broke through weak American defenses along an 85 mile front in Ardennes.
  • The push into the Allied lines gave the campaign its name – the Battle of the Bulge.
  • The Allies eventually pushed the Germans back and won.
germany surrenders
Germany Surrenders
  • After the Battle of the Bulge, the war neared its end.
  • In late March 1945, the Allies invaded Germany.
  • 3 million Allied soldiers approached Berlin from the southwest.
  • 6 million Soviet soldiers approached from the east.
  • By April 25, 1945, the Soviets had surrounded the capital.
hitler s suicide
Hitler’s Suicide
  • On April 29, Hitler married Eva Braun, his long-time companion.
  • He also wrote a final address to the German people.
  • In it, he blamed Jews for starting the war and his generals for losing it.
“I myself and my wife choose to die in order to escape the disgrace of capitulation…I die with a happy heart aware of the immeasurable deeds of our soldiers at the front.”
  • 2 days later, Hitler shot himself after taking poison.
  • His wife also swallowed poison.
  • The bodies were carried out of the underground bunker and burned.

Hitler Commits Suicide April 30, 1945

Cyanide & Pistols

The Führer’s Bunker

Mr. & Mrs. Hitler

May 7, 1945, General Eisenhower accepted the unconditional surrender of the Third Reich from the Germany military.
President Roosevelt, unfortunately, did not live to see the victory.
  • He suddenly died on April 12, as Allied armies were advancing toward Berlin.
  • Harry Truman was Roosevelt’s successor.
  • Truman received the news of Nazi surrender.
  • The U.S. and other Allied powers celebrated V-E day, Victory in Europe Day.
  • The war in Europe had ended at last.
war in pacific
War in Pacific
  • Even though the war in Europe was over, the Allies were still fighting the Japanese in the Pacific.
  • The Allied victory at Guadalcanal, caused the Japanese to retreat for the remainder of the war.
The Allied forces had already been forced to surrender the Philippines in February 1942.
  • In the fall of 1944, the Allied forces returned and eliminated the Japanese navy.
  • Japanese suicide pilots.
  • They would sink Allied ships by crash-diving into them in their bomb-filled planes.
In March 1945, after a month of bitter fighting and heavy losses, American Marines took Iwo Jima, an island 660 miles from Tokyo.
  • On April 1, U.S. troops moved to the island of Okinawa, only 350 miles from Japan.
  • On June 22, the bloodiest land battle of the war ended.
  • The Japanese lost 110,000 troops, and the Americans lost 12,500.
Pima Native American Marine who helped raise the flag on Iwo Jima.
  • Also known as ‘Chief Falling Cloud’.
  • Born in Sacaton 1923, Died in Sacaton 1955
  • Buried in Arlington Cemetary in Washington, D.C.
"Let's say he had a little dream in his heart that someday the Indian would be like the white man — be able to walk all over the United States."
invade japan


  • After Okinawa, MacArthur predicted that a Normandy type amphibious invasion of Japan would result in 1,500,000 Allied deaths
  • President Truman saw only one way to avoid an invasion of Japan . . .

The loss of life at Iwo Jima and Okinawa convinced Allied leaders that an invasion of Japan was not the best idea

manhattan project
Manhattan Project
  • The A-bomb was developed by the top-secret Manhattan Project, headed by General Leslie Groves and J. Robert Oppenheimer.
  • Truman was not aware of the Manhattan Project until he became President.

The Manhattan Project:Los Alamos, NM

I am become death, the shatterer of worlds!

Major GeneralLesley R. Groves

Dr. Robert Oppenheimer

Enrico Fermi
  • Italian Physicist who developed first nuclear reactor.
warning to japanese
Warning to Japanese
  • The first atomic bomb exploded in a desert in New Mexico on July 16, 1945.
  • Truman warned the Japanese they could expect a ‘rain of ruin from the air.’
  • The Japanese did not reply.
  • On August 6, 1945, the U.S. dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, a Japanese city of 365,000 people.
  • 73,000 people died in the attack.

The Enola Gay dropped the bomb on Hiroshima.

Paul Tibbets, pilot, waves from the cockpit.


Tinian Island, 1945

Little Boy Fat Man

Enola Gay Crew

  • 3 days later, on August 9, a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, a city of 200,000.
  • It killed 37,500 people.
  • Radiation killed much more.
Radiation burns
  • Doctors estimate that 60,000 people died from radiation and disease that followed the nuclear attack on Japan.
japanese journalist
Japanese Journalist
  • “Within a few seconds the thousands of people in the streets and the gardens in the center of the town were scorched by a wave of searing heat. Many were killed instantly, others lay writhing on the ground, screaming in agony from the intolerable pain of their burns. Everything standing upright in the way of the blast, walls, houses, factories, and other buildings, was annihilated.”
japanese surrender
Japanese Surrender
  • The Japanese surrendered to General Douglas MacArthur on September 2.
  • The surrender took place aboard the U.S. battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay.
  • With Japan’s surrender, the war officially ended.
  • V-J Day – Victory in Japan.