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Road Financing and Design for Zero Carbon Mobility: a combined global agenda linking safety and environment. Mark Radka Division of Technology, Industry and Economics United Nations Environment Programme International Conference on Road Infrastructure Safety London, 4 July 2008.

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Mark radka division of technology industry and economics united nations environment programme

Road Financing and Design for Zero Carbon Mobility: a combined global agendalinking safety and environment

Mark Radka

Division of Technology, Industry and Economics

United Nations Environment Programme

International Conference on Road Infrastructure Safety

London, 4 July 2008


Mark radka division of technology industry and economics united nations environment programme

"Instead of jumping in a car to go 500 meters, if we use a bike or walk it will make an enormous difference… People should be given road space whereby they can use less polluting and less carbon intensive non-motorized transport.”

Dr. R.K. Pachauri


Mark radka division of technology industry and economics united nations environment programme

Merging Environment, Road Safety, and Poverty bike or walk it will make an enormous difference… People should be given road space whereby they can use less polluting and less carbon intensive non-motorized transport.”

Combining three agendas to maximize impact

  • Road Transport:

    • vehicles to treble in non-OECD countries by 2050 & road transport currently accounts for 74 percent of the world's total transport-related CO2 emissions.

    • Over 800,000 deaths each year due to urban air pollution

    • Reducing vehicle use is key – even if our cars are more efficient and our fuels cleaner, any emission reductions could be offset by sheer number of vehicles

    • Designing cities for vehicles leads to carbon lock-in

  • Road Safety:

    • Most vulnerable are pedestrians, cyclists, passengers in public transport – poorest segments of population

    • By 2020 road accidents will kill or disable more people than war, tuberculosis and HIV combined; cost to African countries 2% GDP

  • Mobility for Development:

    • “NMT initiatives have the potential to reduce the carbon intensity of urban (and rural) transport and at the same time providing low-cost transport alternatives to the poor.” World Bank

    • Investment in low-cost, well-designed NMT infrastructure necessary for access to markets, education, jobs, health care – crucial for social inclusion as major cities suburbanize


Mark radka division of technology industry and economics united nations environment programme

UNEP approach bike or walk it will make an enormous difference… People should be given road space whereby they can use less polluting and less carbon intensive non-motorized transport.”

  • Transport in UNEP

    • public transport promotion & Bus Rapid Transit, sustainable bioenergy, cleaner fleets, air quality monitoring, Global Mobility Forum

  • Public private partnerships - Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles

  • Global campaigns

    • The Global Alliance for Eco Mobility

    • FIA Foundation – ’10% campaign’

  • Technical expertise & support

  • Regional focus – Africa

    • Despite lowest percentage of paved roads, African roads are world’s most dangerous - according to WHO, 80% increase in road traffic fatalities from 1990 - 2020 expected


Mark radka division of technology industry and economics united nations environment programme

Urban Africa bike or walk it will make an enormous difference… People should be given road space whereby they can use less polluting and less carbon intensive non-motorized transport.”

  • Urbanization highest in the world - close to 40 percent of population, 60 percent of the region’s income - by 2030 most Africans will live in cities.

  • Greenhouse gas emissions very low, but growing with energy demand

  • Meanwhile, overall share of cycling is falling due to danger, security, lack of infrastructure

    Business as usual =carbon lock in, congested cities, polluted air,

    increase in traffic injury and fatalities, increased polarization between rich and poor


Mark radka division of technology industry and economics united nations environment programme

Livelihoods bike or walk it will make an enormous difference… People should be given road space whereby they can use less polluting and less carbon intensive non-motorized transport.”

Environment

Safety

  • “…At a minimum 10% of all road infrastructure projects should be committed to road safety.

  • This principle should be rigorously and consistently applied by all bilateral and multilateral donors.”

  • Commission for Global Road Safety

  • Dedicating a percentage of road building and maintenance funds (e.g. 10%) for cycling and walking facilities can improve road safety in Kenya while lowering emissions and reducing poverty.

  • Average passenger car in Nairobi emits 3 metric tons CO2/year - reduction in private car trips for short distances needed

  • 100% energy savings/trips where bicycles substitute cars – 6 bicycles in road space of 1 car

  • Cycling 1) is energy efficient (120 KJ/pkm vs. car: 2400 KJ/pkm), 2) meets the travel needs of the majority and 3) can cover the majority of urban trips (60% less than 5 km)


Mark radka division of technology industry and economics united nations environment programme

Case Study: Nairobi bike or walk it will make an enormous difference… People should be given road space whereby they can use less polluting and less carbon intensive non-motorized transport.”

  • Kibera - home to around 1 million slum dwellers

  • Major urban road, one 2-meter sidewalk on one side

  • Sidewalk to cost 3%-5% of total road cost – road in use, sidewalk to follow

  • 60% walking/cycling, 35% public transport, only 5% use private cars

  • Road accidents are third highest cause of death after malaria and HIV/AIDS

  • 2004 cost of road accidents = 5% GDP


Mark radka division of technology industry and economics united nations environment programme

  • The Daily Commute bike or walk it will make an enormous difference… People should be given road space whereby they can use less polluting and less carbon intensive non-motorized transport.”

  • Safety is the most critical feature for the preservation and development of NMT. Suitable road and intersection redesign will promote NMT and reduce injury and death

  • In Kenya – more than 75% of road traffic casualties are economically productive young adults; pedestrians and passengers account for 80% of deaths

  • Studies in Denmark showed that providing segregated bicycle tracks and lanes alongside urban roads reduced deaths among cyclists by 35%

  • Pedestrian and cyclist friendly cityscapes - reduce dependence on vehicles for short distances, avoid carbon intensive patterns of development


Mark radka division of technology industry and economics united nations environment programme

Way Forward bike or walk it will make an enormous difference… People should be given road space whereby they can use less polluting and less carbon intensive non-motorized transport.”

  • UNEP is working with the FIA Foundation and the Global Alliance for Ecomobility to help developing countries and cities achieve their mobility goals through improved financing for cycling and walking facilities as part of investments in road infrastructure.

  • Through global partnerships, develop road infrastructure financing guidelines that allocate appropriate resources combining NMT and safety – from international donors through to local governments

  • Support UN Global Road Safety Conference 2009 - highlight NMT & environment, safety, poverty

  • Improve political buy-in of national policymakers – information on fatalities of vulnerable road users, low cost/high gain NMT opportunities, air pollution, GHG emissions, income generation

  • NMT global campaign part of UNEP transport position


Division of technology industry and economics www unep fr
Division of Technology, Industry and Economics bike or walk it will make an enormous difference… People should be given road space whereby they can use less polluting and less carbon intensive non-motorized transport.” www.unep.fr