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Small and Thin Planet satellites: Development, State of the Art and EMC Issues. . Jacob Gavan Fellow IEEE October 2013. Introduction.
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Jacob Gavan Fellow IEEE
LEO: 300-2000 Km
GEO: 36000 Km
LPO :Moon ,Planets and future projects
In 2013 are operating several Thousands LEO, more than 400 GEO and around 100 MEO satellites.
An Important part of the sat. cost is the salary of the specialist s and its space reliability tests.
The extreme miniaturization of electronic systems predicted by Moore “doubling the number of elements on an IC each 18 months approximately” enable the building of reliable small sat. . These small sat. can provide good performance at low cost but, due to the limited place, redundancy is difficult to implement, which may limit sat. life time and performances.
Nowadays radio amateurs from more than 24 countries and
thousands of Engineering students all over the world
are building hundreds of Pico and Nano-satellites .
Each earth station is connected with a LEO small
Satellite less than 15 minutes for each cycle and 97%
of the time is not connected to the specific satellite .
control and operate properly LEO small satellites.
Several amateur satellites failed in launch or operation.
Stanford and Polytechnic California State U. have developed in 1999 an open source standard means for building and launching thin low cost nano
and pico satellites. The Cube-sat. kit is a 10cm size cube weighting around 1 kg called the 1U. Are also available the pico-sat. 0.5U or for nano-sat. the 2 and 3U as shown in the figures. A P-POD Poly. Push Out and Deploy sub system is added
The cost for academic students to build an 1U cube-sat. is less than $100k.
In the pictures the Cornell U. sprite 2cm x 2cm x 2mm. is printed on a small light wafer of silicon. The Microcontroller is a TI-MSP430. The sprite could include also miniature sensors such as mini cameras, magnetometers and GPS chips.
The cube sat could carry hundreds of spring loaded sprites. The sprites could be positioned in orbit till 500km for radio communication by sailing on solar wind dip into space like cosmic dust, without onboard fuel supply.
The US Air Force Research Laboratory developed in 2004 the Modular Open Source ARCHitecture (MONARCH) for building small satellites using Plug and Play and 3D printing techniques.
The high performance NASA’s nano-sat. Aercam was launched from a Space Shuttle (STS) in 2005 to inspect and protect SS and the ISS. The Aercam is just 19cm in diameter, weight only 4.5kg and include a Li Ion battery and propellant. An earlier Aercam could prevent the STS-107 disaster of 2003 and save the life of Ilan Ramon and his friends.
Modular open network architecture , Plug and Play and 3-D printing advanced techniques for fast design of small sat.
1. pp(182-188)1 יעקב גוון "לוויינים קשר התקשורת" עיתון מדע של מכון וייצמן 4\984
2 .SO Keefe “Pioneering the Future” NASA Facts December 2002 pp(1-12).
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8. ComtechAeroastro, *Focus the Power of the Pico-satellites” Sat Magazine 1.11
9. H Page, R.Walker; “Flying Students Experiments to he Edge of Space” ESA Bulletin N 144 February 2012 pp(33-38).
11. Casro, et All; “GENSO Pre-Operational Activities and Preparation for GEOID/HUMSAT Operations” ESA Bulletin N149 February 2012 PP(39-43
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14. T. Bekey; “ Advanced Space Systems Concepts and technologies:2010-2030” The Aerospace Press 2009.
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Forecasting and Conclusions
A previous EPFL Swiss cube sat. was launched on 9.09 from India for scientific missions and radio amateurs services at 375 MHz. and is still operating.
This LEO Pico-sat was launched in 10.2012 from the ISS with 7 other small sat. using a Japanese robotic arm.