Lecture 4. Last time Gate delay: why it happens (Capacitance! Resistance!) Voltage rise and fall through logic circuits is gradual t (delay between input and output at 50\% of final value) found graphically Used clock signal to prevent false output (due to signals delayed different amounts)
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Most matter is macroscopically electrically neutral most of the time.
Exceptions: clouds in thunderstorm, people on carpets in dry weather, plates of a charged capacitor…
Microscopically, of course, matter is full of charges.
The application of an electric field causes charges to drift, or move. Electrons will naturally move from lower electric potential to higher potential.
The rate at which the charges move depends on the magnitude of the potential difference and the properties of the matter.
CURRENT – VOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP
1 Ampere
flow
of
1
Coulomb
per
second
æ
ö
dq
C
=
ç
÷
i
(A)
dt
S
è
ø
MOVING CHARGECharge flow Current Charge storage Energy
Definition of Current
where q is the charge in Coulombs and t is the time in seconds
Semiconductor with free electrons
Define Current Density by Example:
Answer
CURRENT & CURRENT DENSITY (cont.)Remember a wire has a huge number of free carriers moving very fast but randomly (because of thermal energy)
Drift concept: Now add even a modest electric field
Carriers “feel” an electric field along the wire and tend to drift with it (+ sign charge) or against it ( charge carrier). This drift is still small compared to the random motion.
3. Electric field is in the direction positive charge carriers move. Thus if we have an electrical field in the Z direction, positive charges (ions, positrons, whatever) will experience a force in the positive Z direction. Negatively charged particles will experience the force in the –Z direction.
Thus the free carriers we will be concerned with (electrons with negative charge and “holes” with positive charge) will move against and with the electric field respectively.
4. Field or Current can have positive or negative sign.
Examples: I = 0.2 mA same as I = 0.2 mA
going left to right going right to left
I
+

REFERENCE DIRECTIONSA question like “Find the current” or “Find the voltage” is always accompanied by a definition of the direction:
In this example if the current turned out to be 1mA, but flowing to the left we would merely say I = 1mA.
To solve circuits, you may need to specify reference directions for currents. But there is no need to guess the reference direction so that the answer comes out positive….Your guess won’t affect what the charge carriers are doing!

+
VOLTAGE“Vab” means the potential at a minus the potential at b.
Voltage is the difference in electric potential between two points.
Potential is always defined by two points.
We can use the subscript convention above to define a voltage between two labeled points (e. g. a and b above),
Vx
or draw a + and – indicating polarity.
Now you make a change. What would this circuit measure?
Note that we have used “ground” symbol ( ) for reference node on DVM. Often it is labeled “C” or “common.”
SIGN CONVENTIONSSuppose you have an unlabelled battery and you measure its voltage with a digital voltmeter. It will tell you magnitude and sign of the voltage.
With this circuit, you are measuring
(or ). DVM indicates 1.4, so by 1.4 V. Which is the positive battery terminal?
B
C
A
D
+
+
+
+
+
+
9V
1.5V
1.5V
How are singlesubscript voltages related to doublesubscript voltages?
Example 2
B
C
A
D
9V
1.5V
1.5V

+
V1

+
VX
Lets put a bunch of batteries, say 1.5V and 9V in series to see what we already know about sign conventions:
SIGN CONVENTIONS (cont.)How is VAD related to VAB, VBC etc ?
VAB = 1.5, VBC = 1.5, and VAC = 3 so clearlyVAC =VAB+VBC etc.
Answer: Clearly A is above D by 9V – 3V or 6V. That is consistent with VAB+VBC + VCD= 1.5 –1.5 + 9 = 6V
What is VAD ?
Answer: Clearly V1 = 1.5 =  VAB = VBA
VX = 6 = VDA
Solve for ix
Just as in the physical world, we do not know a priori the sign (or magnitude) of voltages or currents; we don’t know them in the theoretical world until solving for them, so we just define voltages and currents and accept that half of the time they will be negative (quite analogously to probing with a DC meter).
SIGN CONVENTIONS (cont.)Solve for
Example 1
+
2
Using sign conventions:
V
a
c
+
+
v
1 V
cd


b
d

+
v
bd
KEEPING THE VOLTAGE SIGNS STRAIGHTLabeling Conventions
Note: The labeling convention has nothing to do with whether or not v > 0 or v < 0
Obviously Vcd +Vdb = Vcb too. Then if Vbd = 5V, what is Vcd?
Answer: Vcd 5 = 1 so Vcd = 4V
Power: Transfer of energy per unit time (Joules per second = Watts)
Concept: in falling through a positive potential drop V, a positive charge q gains energy
Power = P = V (dq/dt) = VI
P = V I Volt Amps = Volts Coulombs/sec = Joules/sec = Watts
Circuit elements can absorb or release power (i.e., from or to the rest of the circuit); power can be a function of time.
How to keep the signs straight for absorbing and releasing power?
+ Power absorbed into element
Power delivered from element
It is often convenient to define the current through a circuit element as positive when entering the terminal associated with the + reference for voltage
Here, I and V are “associated”
+ 
Circuit element
How can a circuit element absorb power?
By converting electrical energy into heat (resistors in toasters); light (light bulbs); acoustic energy (speakers); by storing energy (charging a battery).
Negative power releasing power to rest of circuit
(delivered out of battery)
“ASSOCIATED REFERENCE DIRECTIONS” (cont.)We know i = +1 mA
A) For Resistor: P = i vR (because we are using “associated reference directions”)
1.5K
Hence, for the resistor, P = i vR = +1.5mW (absorbed)
B) For battery, current i is opposite to associated
Again, iR = 1mA
therefore iB = 1mA
B) Battery: iB and vB are associated, therefore P= iB vB . Thus
A) Resistor: P = iB vB = +1.5mW
2

V
+
c
a
+
+
+
3 mA
2.5 mA
3
1 V
V
1 V
0.5 mA



b
flip current direction:
EXAMPLES OF CALCULATING POWERFind the power absorbed by each element
Element :
Element :
Element :
Element :
Current Source
Resistor
Capacitor
Inductor
(like ideal battery)
(always supplies some constant given current)
(Ohm’s law)
(capacitor law – based on energy storage in electric field of a dielectric)
(inductor law – based on energy storage in magnetic field produced by a current)
BASIC CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
Current through voltage source can take on any value (positive or negative)
but not infinite
DEFINITION OF IDEAL VOLTAGE SOURCESymbol
Note: Reference direction for voltage source is unassociated (by convention)
Examples:
1) V = 3V
2) v = v(t) = 160 cos 377t
upper case V constant voltage … called “DC”
lower case v general voltage, may vary with time
“Complement” or “dual” of the voltage source: Current though branch is independent of the voltage across the branch
+
note unassociated
v direction
Actual current source examples – hard to find except in electronics (transistors, etc.), as we will see
uppercase I DC (constant) value
lowercase implies current could be timevarying i(t)
Assume unassociated signs
If V is positive and I is only positive
But this is arbitrary; i might be negative so we extend into 2nd quadrant
i
absorbing power
releasing power
V
But this is still arbitrary, V could be negative; all four quadrants are possible
releasing power
absorbing power (charging)
CURRENTVOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF VOLTAGE & CURRENT SOURCESDescribe a twoterminal circuit element by plotting current vs. voltage
+
v
releasing power
absorbing power
i
V
CURRENTVOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF VOLTAGE & CURRENT SOURCES (con’t)If i is positive then we are confined to quadrants 4 and 1:
Remember the voltage across the current source can be any finite value (not just zero)
And do not forget i can be positive or negative. Thus we can be in any quadrant.
V = 1V I = 1 mA V = 2V I = 2 mA
etc
Slope = 1/R
RESISTORIf we use associated current and voltage (i.e., i is defined as into + terminal), then v = iR (Ohm’s law)
Question: What is the IV characteristic for a 1K resistor? Draw on axis below.
Note that all wires and circuit connections have resistance, though we will most often approximate it to be zero. But we can (and do) deliberately construct circuit elements with some desired resistance, even very large values such as 10M.
Symbol
Constitutive relationship: Q = C (Va Vb).
(Q is positive on plate a if Va > Vb)
But so
where we use the associated reference directions.
CAPACITORAny two conductors a and b separated by an insulator with a difference in voltage Vab will have an equal and opposite charge on their surfaces whose value is given by Q = CVab, where C is the capacitance of the structure, and the + charge is on the more positive electrode.
You might think the energy (in Joules) is QV, which has the dimension of joules. But during charging the average voltage was only half the final value of V.
More rigorous derivation: During charging, the power flow is v i into the capacitor, where i is into + terminal. We integrate the power from t = 0 (v = 0) to t = end (v = V). The integrated power is the energy
but dq = C dv. (We are using small q instead of Q to remind us that it is time varying . Most texts use Q.)
Switching properties: Just as capacitors demand v be continuous (no jumps in V), inductors demand i be continuous (no jumps in i ). Reason? In both cases the continuity follows from noninfinite, i.e., finite, power flow.