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Chapter 3 Ecosystem Ecology. Ecology. Ecology “eco” house & “logy” study of The study of interactions among and between organisms in their abiotic environment Broadest field in biology Biotic- living environment Includes all organisms Abiotic- non living or physical environment

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ecology
Ecology
  • Ecology
    • “eco” house & “logy” study of
    • The study of interactions among and between organisms in their abiotic environment
    • Broadest field in biology
  • Biotic- living environment
    • Includes all organisms
  • Abiotic- non living or physical environment
    • Includes living space, sunlight, soil, precipitation, etc.
energy
Energy
  • The ability or capacity to do work
    • Chemical, radiant, thermal, mechanical, nuclear, electrical
  • Energy exists as:
    • Potential energy (stored energy)
    • Kinetic energy (energy of motion)
thermodynamics
Thermodynamics
  • Study of energy and its transformations
  • System- the object being studied
  • Closed System does not exchange energy with surroundings (rare in nature)
  • Open System exchanges energy with surroundings
laws of thermodynamics
Laws of Thermodynamics
  • First Law of Thermodynamics
    • Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can change from one form to another
      • Ex: organisms cannot create energy they need to survive- they must capture it from another source
    • Focus is on quantity
  • Second Law of Thermodynamics
    • When energy is converted from one form to another, some of it is degraded to heat
      • Heat is highly entropic (disorganized)
    • Focus is on quality
photosynthesis

C6H12O6 + 6 H2O + 6 O2

Photosynthesis
  • Biological process by which energy from the sun (radiant energy) is transformed into chemical energy of sugar molecules
  • Energy captured by plants via photosynthesis is transferred to the organisms that eat the plants

6 CO2 + 12 H2O + radiant energy

cellular respiration
Cellular Respiration
  • The process where the chemical energy captured in photosynthesis is released within cells of plants and animals
  • This energy is then used for biological work
    • Creating new cells, reproduction, movement, etc.

C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6 H2O

6 CO2 + 12 H2O + energy

energy flow
Energy Flow
  • Passage of energy in a one-way direction through an ecosystem
    • Producers
    • Primary consumers
    • Secondary consumers
    • Decomposers
food chains the path of energy flow
Food Chains- The Path of Energy Flow
  • Energy from food passes from one organism to another
    • Each “link” is called a trophic level