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Ecosystem Ecology the movement of materials and energy through an ecosystem Section 22-1 Pages 415-419 Producers Manufacture their own food Capture energy and use it to make organic molecules There are two types: Photosynthetic = use energy from light

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ecosystem ecology

Ecosystem Ecology

the movement of materials and energy through an ecosystem

Section 22-1

Pages 415-419

producers
Producers
  • Manufacture their own food
  • Capture energy and use it to make organic molecules
  • There are two types:
    • Photosynthetic = use energy from light
    • Chemosynthetic = use energy from inorganic chemicals
  • Examples = plants, protists, and bacteria
gross primary productivity
Gross Primary Productivity

- is the rate at which producers in an ecosystem capture energy

biomass
Biomass

- is the organic material in an ecosystem

net primary productivity
Net Primary Productivity

= gross primary productivity – rate of respiration in producers

  • is the rate at which biomass accumulates
  • is expressed as: energy/area/year (kcal/m2/y) mass/area/year (g/m2/y)
consumers
Consumers
  • obtain energy by ingesting or consuming organic molecules made by other organisms
  • grouped according to the food they eat
    • Herbivores = eat producers
    • Carnivores = eat consumers
    • Omnivores = eat both producers and consumers
    • Detritivores = eat garbage
    • Decomposers = break down dead tissues and waste into smaller molecules
trophic levels
Trophic Levels
  • an organism’s position in the sequence of energy transfers
  • most ecosystems contain only three or four trophic levels

Producers = 1st level

Herbivores = 2nd level

Carnivores = 3rd level +

food chain
Food Chain
  • a pathway of feeding relationships
why is energy transfer so low
Why is energy transfer so low?
  • Energy is reflected.
  • Energy is lost when some parts cannot be digested.
  • Energy is lost as waste.
  • Energy is lost in cellular respiration.
  • Energy is lost as heat.
  • Organisms die without being eaten.
ecological efficiency20
Ecological Efficiency

100 * 6 / 67 = 9%

100 * 67 / 1478 = 4.5%

100 * 3,368 / 20,810 = 17%

pyramid shape
Pyramid Shape
  • A diagram of trophic level relationships
  • Width of bar correlates with the number
  • Three primary types of diagrams
    • Energy
    • Biomass
    • Population numbers
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