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Synthetic aperture radar observations of sea surface signatures of atmospheric gravity waves over Southeast Asian coastal waters. Werner Alpers Institute of Oceanography, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany Weigen Huang, Gan Xilin
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Synthetic aperture radar observations of sea surface signatures of atmospheric gravity waves over Southeast Asian coastal waters
Institute of Oceanography, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
Weigen Huang, Gan Xilin
State Key Lab. of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics,Second Institute of Oceanography，State Oceanic Administration, Hangzhou, China
It is often not easy to decide whether wave patterns visible on SAR images of the sea surface are sea surface signatuures of oceanic internal waves or of atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs).
Examples of wave patterns visible on SAR images of the sea surface:
Oceanic internal waves
ASAR AP, Yellow Sea, 2 Sept. 2007 13:37 UTC
ASAR AP, VVHH 9 March 2006, 1408 UTC
Atmospheric internal waves (gravity waves) are waves in the atmosphere propagating along the interface of air layers of different densities
Oceanic internal waves are waves are in the interior of the ocean propagating along the interface of water layers of different densities.
1) The radar signature of an atmospheric gravity wave results from the variation of the sea surface wind velocity U.
2) The radar signature of an oceanic internal wave results from the gradient of the surface current u.
σ = B ( U + ΔU)α
σ = σ0 ( 1 + A dux/dx )
The SAR imaging mechanisms of both types of internal waves are different.
Variation of the normalized radar cross section σ caused by this nonlinear atmospheric gravity wave. σ0 is the undisturbed (background) value. On the SAR SAR image the atmospheric gravity wave appears as a broad bright band bordered by two narrow dark bands.
Streamlinesassociated with a nonlinear atmospheric gravity wave (lee wave). In the shadowed region the airflow associated with the wave is opposite to the ambient wind direction (adapted from Doyle, and Durran,2002).
A nonlinear atmospheric internal wave appears on SAR images as a broad bright band sandwiched-in between two narrow dark bands.
A nonlinear ocanic internal waves appears on SAR images as a bright band in front followed by a dark band.
2) oceanic internal waves
dux/dx can be large only in small regions
SAR imaging of nonlinear atmospheric gravity waves and of nonlinear oceanic internal waves
ΔUcan be large in large regions.
Analysis of ASAR images showing sea surface signatures of atmospheric gravity waves
MTSAT-IR IR1 9 November 2005, 13 UTC , China area infrared image, IR1 (10.3-11.3 μm)
ASAR IM, 9 Nov 2007, 13:43 UTC, Yellow Sea, SW of Qingdao
MERIS image,9 November 2005 at 0228 UTC
Wavelength: 10 km
Sea surface wind speed variation induced by the AGWs calculated along the transect inserted in ASAR image as a white line. The wavelength of the AGW is approximately 10 km.
ASAR IM, 9 Nov 2007, 13:43 UTC, SW of Qingdao
Duzhua Shan Dao islands
courtesy: Knut-Frode Dagestad, NERSC, Bergen
ASAR, IM 27 May 2007, 0230 UTC, Bohai Sea
ASAR IM, 27 May 2007, 0230
Wind fields along the profile according to
the NCEP wind direction.
- 6 m/s
Vertical profile of the wind component in the east-west direction calculated from the radiosonde data of Dalian on 27 May 2007 at 0000 UTC.
Upstream atmospheric gravity wave Hangzhou Bay (Wangpang Yang) south of Shanghai
ASAR, APM, 27 Febr. 2007 at 0202 UTC
ASAR APM image , 27 February 2007 at 0202 UTC over the Hangzhou Bay (Wangpang Yang)
Vertical temperature (right curve) and dew point temperature (left curve) profiles measured by a radiosonde launched at Shanghai on 27 February 2007 at 0000 UTC. These profiles are plotted as skew-T diagrams. Note that the very strong inversion at a height of 837 m.
Streamlines along the wave propagation direction in x-z space based on the NCEP wind field. The airflow from the north (to the right) is blocked by the mountains on the peninsula (blue area to the left).
Atmospheric gravity waves over the Strait of Taiwan near Raoping (between Shantou and Xiamen)
Wind from SE
Wavelength of atm. gravity waves: 10 km
ASAR APM 9 April 2005 at 1406 UTC
A prime criterion for a sea surface signature to originate from solitary atmospheric gravity waves is that usually it consists of a narrow dark band in front followed by a broad bright and again a narrow dark band.
A prime criterion for a sea surface signature to originate from solitary oceanic internal waves is that, in general, it consists of a broad bright band in front followed by a weak dark band.