coupled o cean a tmosphere g eneral global c irculation m odels n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
coupled O cean- A tmosphere G eneral/Global C irculation M odels PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
coupled O cean- A tmosphere G eneral/Global C irculation M odels

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 12
jin-ratliff

coupled O cean- A tmosphere G eneral/Global C irculation M odels - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

118 Views
Download Presentation
coupled O cean- A tmosphere G eneral/Global C irculation M odels
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. coupled Ocean-Atmosphere General/Global Circulation Models ~100km horizontal res’n; Finer (~2) for ocean than atmosphere. ~20 layers atmosphere; ~20 layers ocean. Geography inevitably coarse. “Regionalisation”: redo simulation of one region only (e.g. Europe) matched onto cruder global simulation

  2. Basic Physics …

  3. Features and processes Moist processes: Evaporation & condensation: clouds and latent heat Radiation processes, light and IR Sub-resolution convection -> effective viscosity & dispersion Surface changes, e.g. of albedo and roughness Atmosphere-Surface exchange: heat, vapour, liquid, momentum

  4. <<10km: three dimensional >>10km: two dimensional Turbulence Sub-resolution convection -> effective viscosity & dispersion

  5. Major Volcanos State of art ca 1997 -> Major volcanic eruptions are a visible and predictable perturbation on the climate.

  6. Simulated annual global mean surface temperatures IPCC S/PM 2001 In the light of evidence and remaining uncertainties, most of the observed warming in the last 50 years is likely = 66-90% chance due to the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations.

  7. Predictability General claim: Weather chaotic (beyond ~two weeks) but wider/longer scale climate changes relatively predicable. Evidence: Correlation of ice ages with Milankovitch cycles (of earth orbit) Successful replication of response to largest sudden terrestrial perturbations: Volcanoes El Nino changes in ocean circulation Replication of 20th climate trends Exploit: Expensive AOGCM calculations -> calibrate simpler climate simulations -> mass produce climate predictions for different future scenarios

  8. SpecialReport on Emissions Scenarios B2 • Population peaks mid century. • A1: technology-led economy, • F fossil fuels vs ( B “balanced” ) vs T non-fossil fuelled. B1: info & service economy; sustainability & global sol’ns. • Population continues to increase. • A2: very heterogeneous world (“business as usual”) • B2: lower growth rate; emphasis on local solutions (smart but laissez-faire) not predictions, but a range of plausible assumptions

  9. The global climate of the 21st century IPCC S/PM 2001

  10. Projected temperatures

  11. Observed and projected changes in extreme weather and climate events. IPCC S/PM 2001