PARTICIPATION & DELEGATION. Traditional organization. Team-based organization. Occasional use of teams and employee participation. High management Control – No employee Participation. Total delegation High employee Participation. The Continuum of Participation.
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Traditional organization Team-based organization Occasional use of teams and employee participation High management Control – No employee Participation Total delegation High employee Participation The Continuum of Participation Organizational Structure Management Control
Criteria for Use of Participation • When the task is complex and quality is important • When follower commitment is needed • When there is time • When the leader and follower are ready • When the leader and followers can easily interact
Benefits of Participation • Development of followers • Better decision on complex tasks • Increase in follower motivation and commitment • Opportunity to empower followers
Guidelines For Good Delegation • Delegate pleasant and unpleasant tasks • Clarify goals and expectations • Delegate authority along with responsibility • Provide support • Monitor and provide feedback • Delegate to different followers
Excuses For Not Delegating • “My followers are not ready.” • “They do not not have the skills.” • “I am uncomfortable delegating my tasks.” • “I can do the job quicker myself.” • “My followers are too busy.” • “I am responsible for my followers mistakes.” • “My own manager may think I am not working hard enough.”
Characteristics Of Teams • Members are fully committed to common goals they develop • Members are mutually accountable to one another • Members trust one another • Collaborative culture • Shared leadership based on facilitation • Synergy
Self-Managed Teams • Power to manage their own work • Members with different expertise and experience • No outside manager and power to implement team decisions • Coordination with other teams • Internal leadership based on facilitation
Elements of Super Leadership • Developing positive and motivating thought patterns • Personal goal setting • Observation and self-evaluation • Self-reinforcement control and monitoring
Trust Building Trust Open communication Integrity Rewarding cooperation Mutual respect And support Competence And hard work Fairness and equity
Continue to do real work Assess team skills Counsel and encourage Obtain needed training Help define tasks and goals SELF-MANAGED TEAM Help develop implementation plan Clarify team boundaries Manage conflict and relationships Observe from a distance Team Leadership Roles
Characteristics of a Well-Functioning, Effective Group Relaxed, comfortable, informal atmosphere People express feelings & ideas Task well understood & accepted Consensus decision making Members listen well & participate Group aware of its operation & function Clear assignments made & accepted Conflict & disagreement center around ideas or methods
External Conditions Imposed on the Group • Organizational Strategy • Authority Structures • Formal Regulations • Organizational Resources • Personnel Selections Process • Organizational Culture • Physical Work Setting
Group Leaders • Department Manager • Supervisors • Foreman • Project Leaders • Task Force Head • Chairperson • Chief Executive Officer (CEO)
Group Roles • Definition: • Set of expected behavior pattern, attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit • Role Identity • Role Perception • Role Expectations • Role Conflict
Irving Janis’ Model • Antecedent Conditions + Cohesiveness Groupthink Symptoms • Groupthink Symptoms Low Probability of Success
Groupthink Characteristics • Powerful Social Pressures • Concurrence Seeking • Dehumanizing Solutions • Suppression of Deviant Thoughts • Stress
Diverse Teams Offer Both Advantages and Disadvantages in the Workplace Disadvantages Advantages • Increased ambiguity • Increased complexity • Increased confusion • Increased mistrust • Potential miscommunication • Difficulty in reaching agreements • Difficulty in reconciling diverse • perspectives • Difficulty in reaching consensus • Decreased group cohesion • Increased number of perspectives • Multiple interpretations likely • Greater openness to new ideas • Increased flexibility • Increased creativity • Improved problem solving • Improved understanding of foreign • employees or customers Table 6-4
Four Categories of Roles • Group Task Roles: roles which facilitate the selection and definition of a common problem and solution. • Group Building and Maintenance: roles which increase the functioning of the group as a group. • Individual Roles: roles which are oriented toward the satisfaction of individual’s needs. • Creative Roles: roles which involve using creativity to identify possible solutions.
The Initiator- Contributor • Suggests or proposes new ideas • may include the suggestion: • for a new group • a new way to view a problem • a new way to address a problem within the group • a new procedure for the group • a new way to organize the group
The Information Seeker • Seeks clarification of suggestions made in terms of their factual adequacy, for authoritative information and facets pertinent to the problem being discussed.
The Opinion Seeker • Asks not primarily for the facts of the case but for a clarification of the values pertinent to what the group is undertaking or of values involved in a suggestion made or in alternative suggestions.
The Information Giver • Offers facts or generalizations which are “authoritative” or relates his own experience pertinently to the group problem.
The Opinion Giver • States his/her belief or opinion pertinently to a suggestion made or to alternative suggestions. The emphasis is on his/her proposal of what should become the group’s view of pertinent values, not primarily upon relevant facts or information.
The Coordinator • Shows or clarifies the relationships among various ideas and suggestions • Tries to pull ideas and suggestions together • Tries to coordinate the activities of various members
The Evaluator- Critic • Subjects the accomplishments of the group to some standard or set of standards of group functioning in the context of the group task. • May evaluate the “practicality”, “logic”, “Facts”, or “procedures”
The Energizer • Prods the group to action or decision. • Attempts to stimulate or arouse the group to greater or higher quality work.
The Recorder • Writes down suggestions. • Makes a record of group decisions (may be down via memory). • The recorder role is the “group memory.”
The Encourager • Praises, agrees with and accepts the contributions of others. • Indicates warmth, solidarity in attitude toward others. • Offers commendation and praise in various ways and indicates acceptance of others,
The Harmonizer • Mediates the differences between members • Attempts to reconcile disagreements. • Relieves tension in conflict situations.
The Compromiser • Operates from within a conflict in which his/her ideas or position is involved. • May offer compromise by yielding status, admitting error, or by coming “halfway” in meeting another.
The Gate-Keeper & Expediter • Attempts to keep communication open by facilitating participation of others. • Proposes regulation of the flow of communication.
The Follower • Goes along with the movement of the group. • Passively accepts the ideas of others. • Serves as an audience for others in the group as well as for group discussion and decision.
Individual Roles • Attempts by individuals to satisfy personal needs. • Numerous types - from Sociology and Psychology.
The Monopolist • Def: One who chatters on incessantly due to anxiety when silent. • Effect: Group gets concerned, then frustrated and angry. May be afraid to confront because then they must fill the void.
Help-Rejecting Complainer • Def.: requests help than rejects; takes problem in insolvability of problems; blames authority, conflicted about dependency feeling helpless and distrusting. • Effects: seen as greedy and user of group energy; members become bored, confused, irritated and frustrated.
Self-Righteous Moralist • Def.: strong need to be right. Demonstrates superiority via poise and unconcerned about being liked. Deep underlying shame. • Effect: mobilizes so much resentment that may be forced out of the group.
Idea Generator • Look for new ways to do things. • Tend to focus only on ideas and concepts. • Are result driven.
Designers • See the big picture. • Provide guidance and tools. • Define performance standards. • Identify resources needed to complete projects.
Promoters • Visualize end result. • Optimistic. • Promote ideas and give momentum.
Managers Can Use This Checklist to Diagnose the Roles Played by Each Team Member TASK ORIENTED MAINTENANCE INDIVIDUAL Encourager Follower Gatekeeper Group Observer Harmonizer Standard Setter Other Avoider Blocker Clown Dominator Recognition Seeker Other Agenda Setter Analyzer Coordinator Evaluator Information Giver Information Seeker Intuitor Other
Mature Group Characteristics Purpose and Mission • May be assigned or may emerge from the group • Group often questions, reexamines, & modifies mission & purpose • Mission converted into specific agenda, clear goals, & a set of critical success factors
Mature Group Characteristics Behavioral Norms - well-understood standards of behavior within a group Formal & written Informal but understood Ground rules for meetings Intra-group socializing Dress codes