the beginnings of the romanian education system n.
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  1. THE BEGINNINGS OFTHE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM Students: Teona Albu(12th Grade) Simona Voroneanu(12th Grade) Coordinators: Mihaela Ţurcănaşu, teacher of History Daniela Livadaru, teacher of Religion

  2. Stages in the development of the Romanian Education system: • the Antiquity stage; • Middle Ages; • Modern Age; • attempts of system organisation; • 19th Century: extension, specialising and unification of the Education system; • Romanian Education Laws • Romanian Education in the 20th Century Content

  3. I. THE ANTIQUITY STAGE • three educational systems (Greek, Roman and Dacian) overlap; • the 2nd century BC – a local gymnasium on the shores of Lake Sinoe is documented, run by a gymnasiarch which was elected by the citizens of the city, helped by one or more teachers. STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM Map of Ancient Dacia

  4. II. MIDDLE AGES II.1. Early Middle Ages • the spread of Christianity and the institutional organization (eparchies) indicate the existence of incipient education on the territories of the three medieval Romanian countries; Saint Dionysius Exiguus (470-544) – Born in Dobrudja, S-E Romania, he is highly reputed as a theologian, mathematician and astronomer, being considered the inventor of Christian calendar Saint John Cassianus (360-465) - A Dacian monk and ascetic writer, he had received in his youth a good education, thanking in his works to his teachers STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM

  5. II. MIDDLE AGES II.2. High Middle Ages - 1028 – the first Latin school in Cenad (Banat - Transylvania) – vocational learning: training clergy and missionaries (30 students) – shut down in 1241; - 1200-1300 – Latin schools around eparchies; - the existence of Romanian illuminated manuscripts (the 15th – 16th centuries) proves that some schools functioned; “Saint John the Baptist” Monastery , Cenad, Transylvania, where had functioned the first Latin school “The Four Gospels Book”, written on parchment by Gavriil Uric at Neamţ Monastery – nowadays kept in Bodleyan Library, Oxford STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM

  6. II.2. HIGH MIDDLE AGES Education in the three Romanian countries (Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia) was influenced by the educational/cultural system in the neighbouringstates: Dobrudja STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM Wallachia Map of Medieval Romania

  7. Influences in the Education system • Moldavia: • Polish influence – University of Cracow – more than 20 young Moldavians studied here between 1401 – 1503; • Slavonic influence – Lwow and Kiev Academy (where chronicler Grigore Ureche and metropolite Petru Movilă had studied); • 1562/1563 – Schola Latina in Cotnari founded by Prince Despot– primary and gymnasium level, with teachers brought from Germany (Wittenberg) and Poland (Cracow) – which targeted low and middle-class noblemen, and had a boarding school policy; Grigore Ureche, 1590-1647 STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM Ruins of Schola Latina– Cotnari, Iaşi, N-E Romania

  8. Moldavia and its neighbours around 1500

  9. Influences in the Education system • 2. Wallachia: • in close proximity to Byzantine culture (Serbia and Bulgaria) – the presence of numerous Greek and Byzantine scholars on the Wallachian territory; • Saint Nicodim of Tismana, Serbian of origin, a man honorable and holy, versed in the knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, with a penetrating spirit, and strong in dialectics, copied the first dated manuscript, with Slavonic characters (1404-1405); Metrophanes Kritopoulos, Greek patriarch and theologian, studied at Oxford, in Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and established in Wallachia STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM The Four Gospels, copied by Saint Nicodemus of Tismana

  10. Influences in the Education system • 3. Transylvania: • Latin influence by using this language in the chancellery of the Transylvania principality which was under Hungarian ruling; • The influence of the Reform = the appearance of education in the national language (the Romanian School in Şchei, Braşov – dating back to 11th-12th Century, teaching in Romanian is attested in 1583; • Education in Hungarian and German was privileged; Nicolaus Olahus, 1493-1568 – the most prominent humanist of Transylvania, he took measures in favour of the development of education in his native country STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM Remnants from the first school in Romanian – Şchei, Braşov

  11. Influences in the Education system • A unity item for Transylvania, Wallachia and Moldavia: • the influence of Greek and Byzantine culture Nicolae Milescu (1636-1708), a Moldavian writer, traveller, geographer and diplomat, considered the first uomo universale, studied at the Patriarchate College in Istanbul Dimitrie Cantemir (1673-1723), prince of Moldavia and a prolific man of letters, studied at the Patriarchate’s Greek Academy in Constantinople STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM

  12. II. Middle Ages II.3. Late Middle Ages • 17th century – the number of rural schools and urban rises, in Transylvania being monastic schools, in Wallachia and Moldavia – state schools; the first academies are founded (The Vasilian Academy – 1640– the first high learning institution in Moldavia, founded by voivode Vasile Lupu, in Iaşi,The College of Saint Sava– 1688, founded by Constantin Cantacuzino in Bucharest – the first high learning institutionin Wallachia); • Ecclesiastic education continues to function (around monasteries – preparing clergy, copyists etc.); In keeping with tradition, on the place where functioned the Vasilian Academy lies nowadays another school STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM The Monastery and the Academy of Saint Sava, Bucharest

  13. III. Modern Age • the 18th century– the beginning of modern education, but this time influenced by the Greeks, because of the Phanariots (1711 – Moldavia, 1714 – Wallachia); • the number of princely schoolsrises (1766 – Schools Charters); STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM Nicholas Maurokordatos, 1670-1730, who opened the reign of the Phanariots, was an enlightened ruler, supporting the development of education, but in Greek

  14. III. Modern Age • There was an increase of the involvement of the state in the effort of organizing the education system: • 1747 – Grigorie Ghica – re-establishes four schools in Iasi– Old Greek, Modern Greek, Romanian, Slavonic in Iaşi and around Eparchial Seats (Roman, Rădăuţi, Huşi); • 1776 – Alexandru Ipsilanti – reorganisesthe education system on modern pedagogical principles (higher attention to exact subjects, practical activities, laboratory work, studying foreign languages...); STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM Alexandru Ipsilanti(1725-1805) reformed the curriculum and oriented education towards Western patterns

  15. III. Modern Age • TRANSYLVANIA: • education in the Romanian language is developed especially as a privilege of unifying the Orthodox and the Roman-Catholic Church (1698 - 1701), being encouraged by the reforms of enlightened absolutism (Maria Teresa, 1774 – Ratio educationis, and Franz Joseph, 1781 – Norma Regia – the first institutionalized form of education in Transylvania); STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM Maria Theresa reformed education, all children of both genders from the ages of six to twelve having to attend school and introducing the secular subjects in study.

  16. III. Modern Age • 19th century – three clear coordinates in education: extension, specializing and unification. • 1821 – technicaland professional education - starting from one qualification at the work place to the apprentice-status in manufactories; • 1831-1832 – the status of the Board of Schools (as a central authority for schools) was established by the Organic Regulation in Moldavia and Wallachia; • 1833 – Wallachia, and 1834 – Moldavia – school regulations stating: organizing a complete school network in Romanian for all children of school age, structured in primary, secondary, professional and high learning; • 1835, Bucharest: Professional School and Agriculture School; • 1836, Iaşi: The Conservatory; STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM

  17. III. Modern Age On the 20th of March 1834, prince Mihail Sturdza issued the foundation act of an Academy, the first Romanian-language institution of higher education, bearing his name, organised in three faculties. He brought scholars from foreign countries to act as teachers, and gave thus a very powerful stimulus to the educational developmentof the country. STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM The “MihailSturdza” Academy

  18. III. Modern Age The conditions for developing a modern education system were created this way, following a western pattern, especially a French one. The French influence was consolidated by the great number of young noblemen who had attended high education courses in Paris, Sorbonne, Berlin or Vienna. STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM Gheorghe Asachi(1788-1869), an Enlightment-educated polymath and polyglot, travelled all over Europe, studying at Lwow, Vienna, Roma. As the civil servant overseeing all Moldavian schools, he change Greek-language education into teaching in Romanian.

  19. III. Modern Age • 1848– reference moment in developing the national spirit: • teaching in Romanian; • printing specialized text-books; • stimulating the development of rural education; STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM The ruler Barbu Ştirbei (1849-1853/1854-1856) is considered to be founder and organiser of the national education system

  20. 1850 – The Law for the reorganization of the Education system • primary school - 4 years, gymnasium and college classes - 8 years, special education - in “higher” schools; • a faculty for Law and one for Science were founded; • the Academy in Iaşi, strengthen on the basis of Prince Grigore Alexandru Ghica’s school reform, entitled „the Princely Academy of Learning and Episteme (positive sciences)”, was enriched with a library and an incipient laboratory museum of „Mathematical Organs” (instruments for geodesy and practical application of Mathematics); ROMANIAN EDUCATION LAWS Petrache Poenaru, 1799-1875, studied in Paris, Vienna and in England and was a mathematician, physicist, inventor, teacher and organiser of the Education system

  21. 1864 – The Public Instruction Law – Alexandru IoanCuza • Innovative principles: • Separating education from Church; • Primary-school education – public, 4 years, free of charge, compulsory for girls and boys of 7 to 12 years old who had Romanian citizenship; • Secondary-school education: for boys: gymnasium – 4 years, high school – 7 years, for girls: secondary school; professional schools (technological, agricultural, of household, of trade), theological seminars; • University education: 2 universities, each with 7 faculties, covering general knowledge, technical, artistic or medical fields; ROMANIAN EDUCATION LAWS Mihail Kogălniceanu (1817-1891), prime minister of Romania (1859-1864), studied in Lunéville and in Berlin and initiated a series of reforms to create a modern state

  22. SpiruHaret, the minister of education (1897-1910): essential role in optimizing the education system • Developing the rural and urban school network; • Qualifying the teachers by founding pedagogical seminars; • Extending the duration of secondary education to eight years, in two cycles: inferior (gymnasium) and high school with three profiles – classical, real and modern; • Developing the practical-applicative side of learning; • Organizing the university scientific life – the university Senate; ROMANIAN EDUCATION LAWS SpiruHaret (1851-1912), mathematician, astronomer and politician, ran deep reforms and is the founder of Romanian modern education

  23. Despite all legislative efforts, at the end of the 19th century – the beginning of the 20th century, the majority of the population still lived in the rural areas, in poor life conditions, in promiscuity, ignorance and illiteracy.

  24. 1918 – the Great Unification: • Difficulties in unifying four different education systems(the Romanian Countries: Moldavia and Wallachia, Transylvania and Bukovina separated from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and Basarabia separated from the Russian Empire); • Difficulties in adapting to the new society requests: industrialization and modernization; ROMANIAN EDUCATION IN THE 20th CENTURY Ferdinand the Unifier, king of Romania (1914-1927) Queen Mary of Romania (1914-1927)

  25. 1924 – The Primary School Law • free compulsory schooling is kept and the duration of the courses is changed from 4 to 7 years, extending the 4 theoretical years with 3 years of practical courses in agriculture or different crafts; • centralized education, without accepting privileges or decentralized education, with regard to programmes and supervising the educational process; • in addition, paralleling the above, the practice of employing tutors is maintained (rich families) or educating students in private colleges in the country or abroad; ROMANIAN EDUCATION IN THE 20th CENTURYEDUCATION LAWS The Private college Notre Dame de Sion in Iaşi included a boarding high school for girls, a professional school, a kindergarten, an orphanage, and a medical unit

  26. 1924 – The Primary School Law • however, dropping out of school, school failure or illiteracy could not be totally stopped; • 1921-1932 only 5,4 per cent of the pupils who applied for rural schools got into secondary school, 2,5 per cent into high school, 1,2 per cent into normal schools, 0,3 per cent into seminars, the rest into professional schools; ROMANIAN EDUCATION IN THE 20th CENTURYEDUCATION LAWS

  27. 1928 – The Law for secondary education: • Separating the sexes is kept; • Duration – 7 years; • High school comprises all theoretical profiles (classical, real and modern), becoming difficult to graduate; • The Baccalaureatehad 7 subjects (Romanian and Mathematics in writing), with professors – the maturity exam; • Pedagogical Education, commercial, industrial, agricultural and military education continue to function; • Unfortunately, only a small number of students attended high-school classes (9.1 per cent – theoretical high schools, 2.7 per cent – vocational schools), one of the reason being high school fees; ROMANIAN EDUCATION IN THE 20th CENTURYEDUCATION LAWS

  28. ROMANIAN EDUCATION IN THE 20th CENTURYEDUCATION LAWS Even if a small number of students attended high school, the required high standards had as a result a high quality class of intellectuals

  29. Education after the Second World War: 1945 – There was a 25 percentage of illiteracy among the population with ages ranging between 16 and 56 years old — a wide campaign of eradicating illiteracy begun. 1948 – The Stalinist reform of education – the Soviet system was borrowed, without any adaptation, thus generating dysfunctions. ROMANIAN EDUCATION IN THE 20th CENTURYEDUCATION LAWS Communist rulers imposed by Russian Soviet power after 1948

  30. 1948 – The Stalinist reform of education Negative aspects: • Reducingthe duration of free compulsory primary education from 7 to 4 years; • Gymnasium and high-school courses change from 8 to 4 years, then to 3; • Separating high courses in different strict fields lasting between 2 and 5 years; • Shutting down confessional and private schools; • Politic interference in schools by creating organizations with political character (The Nation’s Hawks, The Nation’s Pioneers, Young Communist Union); • Eliminating or combining humanistic subjects, scientific atheism, compulsory study of Russian; ROMANIAN EDUCATION IN THE 20th CENTURYEDUCATION LAWS

  31. ROMANIAN EDUCATION IN THE 20th CENTURYEDUCATION LAWS Political indoctrination begun in the kindergarten with the enrolment in “the Nation’s Hawks” organisation

  32. 1948 – The Stalinist reform of education Positive aspects: • A higher percentage of schooling of the population with ages between 7 and 11 years old – 92.1 per cent; • The educational offer diversifies, being adapted to the demands of the new industrialized society; • The gradual creation of a national network for primary school education; • Extending / building properly equipped schools. • Due to larger and larger yearly budget funds allocated to education, mainly between 1950–1980, there were made significant progress for the education process – more schools, more professors, but, the most important among all, more pupils. ROMANIAN EDUCATION IN THE 20th CENTURYEDUCATION LAWS

  33. 1965-1989– The Communist regime of NicolaeCeauşescu: • 1968 – Law – removal of the Soviet model and reverting to the Romanian Inter-bellum model – 12 compulsory classes, free education, including the superior one; • 1978 – Centralization and excessive control of educational institutions (typical to the Communist regime); teaching must be combined with patriotic work; • 1980’s – The economic crises drew under funding of the educational system. ROMANIAN EDUCATION IN THE 20th CENTURYEDUCATION LAWS Students during the compulsory two-week stage of patriotic work

  34. After the fall of the Communist regime in December 1989: The dramatic effects of the economic collapse, as registered after 1980, has put the education system in Romania in a difficult situation, due to sub financing, worsened, after 1989, by the general post-December crisis. 1995– The new education law – organized on democratic principles, but stipulating only 10 free compulsory classes; The educational system is still searching for solutions to respond to the demands of the modern society, a serious threat being the under funding. ROMANIAN EDUCATION IN THE 20th CENTURYEDUCATION LAWS

  35. Rădulescu, Dan Constantin, Învăţământul românesc 1948-1989 – Între derivă şi recuperare instituţional-funcţională (The Romanian education from 1948 till 1989 – between leeway and institutional-functional recovery), in “Life Quality”, XVII, 2006, no. 3-4, pp. 307-318. Rădulescu, Dan Constantin, Învăţământul public din România în secolul al XIX-lea – evoluţie şi consecinţe sociale (The Public education in Romania in the 19th Century – evolution and social consequences), in “Life Quality”, no. XIV, 2003, no. 3. Urechia, V.A., Istoriaşcoalelor de la 1800-1864 (The History of Schools from 1800 till 1864), Editura Imprimeria naţională, Bucureşti, 1892. Sources: