THE BEGINNINGS OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM. Students: Teona Albu ( 1 2 th Grade) Simona Voroneanu ( 1 2 th Grade) . Coordinators: Mihaela Ţurcănaşu , teacher of History Daniela Livadaru , teacher of Religion. Stages in the development of the Romanian Education system:
Students: Teona Albu(12th Grade)
Simona Voroneanu(12th Grade)
Coordinators: Mihaela Ţurcănaşu, teacher of History
Daniela Livadaru, teacher of Religion
Map of Ancient Dacia
II.1. Early Middle Ages
Saint Dionysius Exiguus (470-544) – Born in Dobrudja, S-E Romania, he is highly reputed as a theologian, mathematician and astronomer, being considered the inventor of Christian calendar
Saint John Cassianus (360-465) - A Dacian monk and ascetic writer, he had received in his youth a good education, thanking in his works to his teachersSTAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM
II.2. High Middle Ages
- 1028 – the first Latin school in Cenad (Banat - Transylvania) – vocational learning: training clergy and missionaries (30 students) – shut down in 1241;
- 1200-1300 – Latin schools around eparchies;
- the existence of Romanian illuminated manuscripts (the 15th – 16th centuries) proves that some schools functioned;
“Saint John the Baptist” Monastery , Cenad, Transylvania, where had functioned the first Latin school
“The Four Gospels Book”, written on parchment by Gavriil Uric at Neamţ Monastery – nowadays kept in Bodleyan Library, OxfordSTAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM
Education in the three Romanian countries (Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia) was influenced by the educational/cultural system in the neighbouringstates:
DobrudjaSTAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM
Map of Medieval Romania
Grigore Ureche, 1590-1647STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM
Ruins of Schola Latina– Cotnari, Iaşi, N-E Romania
Metrophanes Kritopoulos, Greek patriarch and theologian, studied at Oxford, in Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and established in WallachiaSTAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM
The Four Gospels, copied by Saint Nicodemus of Tismana
Nicolaus Olahus, 1493-1568 – the most prominent humanist of Transylvania, he took measures in favour of the development of education in his native countrySTAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM
Remnants from the first school in Romanian – Şchei, Braşov
Nicolae Milescu (1636-1708), a Moldavian writer, traveller, geographer and diplomat, considered the first uomo universale, studied at the Patriarchate College in Istanbul
Dimitrie Cantemir (1673-1723), prince of Moldavia and a prolific man of letters, studied at the Patriarchate’s Greek Academy in ConstantinopleSTAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM
II.3. Late Middle Ages
In keeping with tradition, on the place where functioned the Vasilian Academy lies nowadays another schoolSTAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM
The Monastery and the Academy of Saint Sava, Bucharest
Nicholas Maurokordatos, 1670-1730, who opened the reign of the Phanariots, was an enlightened ruler, supporting the development of education, but in Greek
Alexandru Ipsilanti(1725-1805) reformed the curriculum and oriented education towards Western patterns
Maria Theresa reformed education, all children of both genders from the ages of six to twelve having to attend school and introducing the secular subjects in study.
On the 20th of March 1834, prince Mihail Sturdza issued the foundation act of an Academy, the first Romanian-language institution of higher education, bearing his name, organised in three faculties. He brought scholars from foreign countries to act as teachers, and gave thus a very powerful stimulus to the educational developmentof the country.STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM
The “MihailSturdza” Academy
The conditions for developing a modern education system were created this way, following a western pattern, especially a French one. The French influence was consolidated by the great number of young noblemen who had attended high education courses in Paris, Sorbonne, Berlin or Vienna.STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM
Gheorghe Asachi(1788-1869), an Enlightment-educated polymath and polyglot, travelled all over Europe, studying at Lwow, Vienna, Roma. As the civil servant overseeing all Moldavian schools, he change Greek-language education into teaching in Romanian.
The ruler Barbu Ştirbei (1849-1853/1854-1856) is considered to be founder and organiser of the national education system
Petrache Poenaru, 1799-1875, studied in Paris, Vienna and in England and was a mathematician, physicist, inventor, teacher and organiser of the Education system
Mihail Kogălniceanu (1817-1891), prime minister of Romania (1859-1864), studied in Lunéville and in Berlin and initiated a series of reforms to create a modern state
SpiruHaret, the minister of education (1897-1910): essential role in optimizing the education system
SpiruHaret (1851-1912), mathematician, astronomer and politician, ran deep reforms and is the founder of Romanian modern education
Despite all legislative efforts, at the end of the 19th century – the beginning of the 20th century, the majority of the population still lived in the rural areas, in poor life conditions, in promiscuity, ignorance and illiteracy.
Ferdinand the Unifier, king of Romania (1914-1927)
Queen Mary of Romania (1914-1927)
The Private college Notre Dame de Sion in Iaşi included a boarding high school for girls, a professional school, a kindergarten, an orphanage, and a medical unit
Even if a small number of students attended high school, the required high standards had as a result a high quality class of intellectuals
1945 – There was a 25 percentage of illiteracy among the population with ages ranging between 16 and 56 years old — a wide campaign of eradicating illiteracy begun.
1948 – The Stalinist reform of education – the Soviet system was borrowed, without any adaptation, thus generating dysfunctions.ROMANIAN EDUCATION IN THE 20th CENTURYEDUCATION LAWS
Communist rulers imposed by Russian Soviet power after 1948
Political indoctrination begun in the kindergarten with the enrolment in “the Nation’s Hawks” organisation
Students during the compulsory two-week stage of patriotic work
The dramatic effects of the economic collapse, as registered after 1980, has put the education system in Romania in a difficult situation, due to sub financing, worsened, after 1989, by the general post-December crisis.
1995– The new education law – organized on democratic principles, but stipulating only 10 free compulsory classes;
The educational system is still searching for solutions to respond to the demands of the modern society, a serious threat being the under funding.ROMANIAN EDUCATION IN THE 20th CENTURYEDUCATION LAWS
Rădulescu, Dan Constantin, Învăţământul românesc 1948-1989 – Între derivă şi recuperare instituţional-funcţională (The Romanian education from 1948 till 1989 – between leeway and institutional-functional recovery), in “Life Quality”, XVII, 2006, no. 3-4, pp. 307-318.
Rădulescu, Dan Constantin, Învăţământul public din România în secolul al XIX-lea – evoluţie şi consecinţe sociale (The Public education in Romania in the 19th Century – evolution and social consequences), in “Life Quality”, no. XIV, 2003, no. 3.
Urechia, V.A., Istoriaşcoalelor de la 1800-1864 (The History of Schools from 1800 till 1864), Editura Imprimeria naţională, Bucureşti, 1892.