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The Beginnings of Industrialization. EQ: What were the causes and effects of the Industrial Revolution? SSWH15. Industrial Revolution. What was it?. Production of goods went from being made at home to being mass produced in factories.

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The Beginnings of Industrialization

EQ: What were the causes

and effects of the Industrial Revolution?


what was it

Industrial Revolution

What was it?

Production of goods went from being made at home to being mass produced in factories.

why britain
Industrialization - Increased production because of the development of machines.

Britain was the 1st to industrialize;

It had the natural resources that were

needed: coal, water, iron ore, rivers,

& harbors.

Also had the 4 factors of

production:land, labor, capital, management/ government.

Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain

Why Britain?
most goods were made by hand by middle of 1700s more more goods were made by machines

Pre-Industrial Revolution:

Most goods were made by hand.

By middle of 1700s, more & more goods were made by machines!

It began w/ an agricultural revolution!

1700s – small farms covered England.

Large landowners began buying up the small farms & then enclosed their farms w/ fences – enclosures.

Poor farmers who lost land became tenant farmers.

Pre-Industrial Revolution

Farmers became more productive b/c of new inventions

Also practiced crop rotation.

Food more available; ppl had better diets; pop. ↑

As pop. ↑, the demand for goods ↑……like clothing!

Pre-Industrial Revolution

textile industry first industry to benefit from ind rev
Textile Industry(first industry to benefit from Ind. Rev.)
  • Flying Shuttle
    • Inventor: John Kay
    • Process to weave cloth out of cotton. It moved cloth more quickly through the loom.
  • Spinning Jenny
    • Inventor: James Hargraves
    • Could produce 8 times as much thread as a single spinning wheel
  • Cotton Gin
    • Inventor: Eli Whitney
    • Made harvesting cotton more efficient
agricultural industry
Agricultural Industry
  • Seed Drill
    • Inventor: Jethro Tool
    • Planted seeds in rows
  • Crop Rotation
    • Inventor: Vincent Charles Townshend
    • Alternating crops of different kinds to avoid soil exhaustion
steam power industry
Steam Power Industry
  • Waterframe
    • Inventor: Richard Arkwright
    • Driven by water power.
      • Was large so he opened a mill that eventually employed 400 workers. *Beginning of modern factory system.
  • Spinning Mule
    • Inventor: Samuel Compton
    • Combined features of the Spinning Jenny & Waterframe
  • Power Loom
    • Inventor: Edward Cartwright
    • Faster weaving process that used automatic power from a water source
steam power industry1
Steam Power Industry


Spinning Mule

Power Loom

steam power cont d
Steam Power Cont’d
  • Steam Engine
    • Inventor: Thomas Newcomen
  • Steam Engine to Ship
    • Inventor: Robert Fulton
      • Adapted steam engine to power ships
        • The Clermont
  • Steam Engine Improvements
    • Inventor: James Watt
    • Improved steam engine & his engine was used to new spinning & weaving machines

Steel/Metal (needed b/c the iron that was used to build steam engines was too weak & often blew up) Steel is iron with impurities removed.

  • Bessemer Process
    • Inventor: Bessemer
    • Revolutionary process of making steel. It reduced the cost & b/c of cost reduction, steel became the staple material of the Ind. Rev.
  • Light Bulb
    • Inventor: Thomas Edison
    • Replaced gas light
      • First cities to have working central powerhouses were NYC, London, & Milan
  • Locomotive
    • Inventor: George Stephenson
    • Moving engine
      • The Rocket
  • Gas Automobile
    • Inventor(s): Charles & Frank Duryea
  • Assembly Line
    • Inventor: Henry Ford
    • Led to mass production
      • Model T
communication industry
Communication Industry
  • Electric Current
    • Inventor: Andre Ampre
    • Magnetic effect of an electric current
  • Morse Code
    • Inventor: Samuel Morse
    • Series of dots & dashes sent via electric current over a wire to a machine.
  • Telephone
    • Inventor: Alexander Graham Bell
    • Sent human voice over a long distance via electric current
  • Radio Waves
    • Inventor: Marconi
    • Wireless communication (wireless telegraph)
      • Was valuable for ship to shore communication
  • Byproducts
    • Secondary products that result from making something else (ex. Sawdust is a byproduct of the timber industry.)
  • Rubber
    • Inventor: Charles Goodyear
    • New process for curing the rubber to make it more elastic
      • First used on belts in industry & later for tires
factory system
  • The factory system changed working & living conditions.
  • The introduction of machinery changed the way work was done.
  • Instead of spending several years as an apprentice learning a trade, a person could learn to work a machine in a few days.
who was hired
Who was hired?
  • Business owners preferred to hire younger people rather than older skilled people, because they were not set in their ways of doing something, and would work for less money.
  • In the early factories most employees were children, and adults under the age of 30.
  • Factory owners became known as capitalists, and they paid their workers wages.
working conditions
Working Conditions
  • 14 hour days/6 days a week
  • The job was monotonous. (doing the same task repetitively
  • Uncomfortable conditions that were noisy, dirty and poorly ventilated.
  • Humid & hot in the summer and cold in the winter.
  • machines had no safety devices
  • no accident insurance or workers comp.
  • Children as young as 5 could be employed in cotton mills and mines.
  • Women and children were ideal workers
living conditions
Living Conditions
  • Cities became cramped and unsanitary.
  • Most lived in crowded tenements or apartments.
  • Fresh meat and milk was scarce.
  • City workers usually ate bread, tea or coffee, potatoes and few other vegetables.
  • Poor diets gave people diseases such as rickets – a bone disease caused by a vitamin deficiency.
effects of the industrial revolution
Effects of the Industrial Revolution


  • Middle Class Increases due to the creation of jobs
  • It contributed to the wealth of a nation.
  • It fostered the technological growth.
  • It increased production of goods & lowered prices.
  • Industry will spread to the U.S.


  • Poor working conditions
  • Poor living conditions
  • Poor health due to lack of income
  • Spread of disease/lowlife expectancy
  • Child Labor
  • Desire for more natural resources  Imperialism
Belgium was one of the 1st to industrialize – rich in iron & coal.

Up until 1800s, Germany had been politically divided; so industry developed slowly at first.

However, in Germany, the Ruhr Valley was rich in coal –

it would eventually become leading industrial region!

Industry Spreads to the Rest of Europe

how did industrialization change the world
Countries who industrialized gained more power & made more $ than those were unable to industrialize

Industrial nations become world powers

Europeans needed more raw materials for their factories…..they began to look at Africa & Asia as places to get them!

Imperialism – a practice by which a foreign power extends political and economic influence or control over another country

Impact of Industrialization

How did industrialization change the world?
“It is the highest impertinence and presumption… in kings and ministers, to pretend to watch over the economy of private people, and to restrain their expense... They are themselves always, and without any exception, the greatest spendthrifts in the society. Let them look well after their own expense, and they may safely trust private people with theirs. If their own extravagance does not ruin the state, that of their subjects never will.”
  • The Wealth Of Nations, Book II, Chapter III, p.346, para. 36. (Adam Smith)
Ind. Rev. led to new ways of thinking about society

Some people thought government should have more control over industries to prohibit poor conditions.

Others thought more government control would restrict growth in companies.

This develop into two ideas of how an economy should be operated: Socialism vs. Capitalism

2 Ideas of Reform

Adam Smith


argued that govt. should not put limits on businesses – having freedom would help the economy grow.

He & others supported capitalism – ppl invest their own $ to make a profit.

thought the govt. should leave business owners alone – laissez faire view. (Hands off view of the economy – no gov’t control)

Supporters of laissez faire opposed laws to protect workers b/c this increased gov’t control

The U.S. is a capitalist society, but gov’t has some control over industries. List some examples .


The word “social” means for the or about the people

Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels wrote Communist Manifesto - In it, he describes a form of socialism called communism – production should be controlled by the ppl. These ideas would bring revolution!!!!

Socialists believed it was unfair for workers to work in bad conditions & for little $.

Believed the govt. should end differences in wealth among the ppl.

believed that all of society should own businesses & share in the wealth evenly.


  • Workers of the
  • world, unite!”

Philosophy of Marxism

  • Karl Marx proposed his own form of socialism called: Marxism– said that factory owners & workers would struggle for power & that a capitalist society would destroy itself. Eventually, all the workers would unite & rebel against the wealthy few.

Communism Continued

Communism is a form of complete socialism in which all means of production- all land, mines, factories, railroads and businesses would be owned by the gov’t. No private property and goods and services would be shared equally. The Communist Manifesto did not shake things at first but by the 1900s countries such as Russia, China and Cuba

how did workers take action to improve their lives
Many workers joined unions – a group of workers who try to bargain w/ employees for better pay & working conditions.

If employees resisted these changes, workers would strike!

Labor Unions & Reform Laws

How did workers take action to improve their lives?
so why does this matter
SO…Why does this matter?
  • The Industrial Revolution brought two very important things to the table:
    • It increased competition between nations. (Competition to grow bigger and better than their opponent)
    • In order to compete with each other, nations would need to produce more items in the factory. In order to do this they will need more RAW MATERIALS….Where will they get these?

Africa & Asia

exit ticket
Exit Ticket…

How can industrialization of nations be underlying causes for conflicts?