The Beginnings of Industrialization. EQ: What were the causes and effects of the Industrial Revolution? SSWH15. Industrial Revolution. What was it?. Production of goods went from being made at home to being mass produced in factories.
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EQ: What were the causes
and effects of the Industrial Revolution?
Britain was the 1st to industrialize;
It had the natural resources that were
needed: coal, water, iron ore, rivers,
Also had the 4 factors of
production:land, labor, capital, management/ government.
Industrial Revolution Begins in BritainWhy Britain?
Most goods were made by hand.
By middle of 1700s, more & more goods were made by machines!
1700s – small farms covered England.
Large landowners began buying up the small farms & then enclosed their farms w/ fences – enclosures.
Poor farmers who lost land became tenant farmers.
Also practiced crop rotation.
Food more available; ppl had better diets; pop. ↑
As pop. ↑, the demand for goods ↑……like clothing!
Steel/Metal (needed b/c the iron that was used to build steam engines was too weak & often blew up) Steel is iron with impurities removed.
Up until 1800s, Germany had been politically divided; so industry developed slowly at first.
However, in Germany, the Ruhr Valley was rich in coal –
it would eventually become leading industrial region!
Industry Spreads to the Rest of Europe
Industrial nations become world powers
Europeans needed more raw materials for their factories…..they began to look at Africa & Asia as places to get them!
Imperialism – a practice by which a foreign power extends political and economic influence or control over another country
Impact of IndustrializationHow did industrialization change the world?
Some people thought government should have more control over industries to prohibit poor conditions.
Others thought more government control would restrict growth in companies.
This develop into two ideas of how an economy should be operated: Socialism vs. Capitalism
2 Ideas of Reform
WROTE WEALTH OF NATIONS
argued that govt. should not put limits on businesses – having freedom would help the economy grow.
He & others supported capitalism – ppl invest their own $ to make a profit.
thought the govt. should leave business owners alone – laissez faire view. (Hands off view of the economy – no gov’t control)
Supporters of laissez faire opposed laws to protect workers b/c this increased gov’t control
The U.S. is a capitalist society, but gov’t has some control over industries. List some examples .
Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels wrote Communist Manifesto - In it, he describes a form of socialism called communism – production should be controlled by the ppl. These ideas would bring revolution!!!!
Socialists believed it was unfair for workers to work in bad conditions & for little $.
Believed the govt. should end differences in wealth among the ppl.
believed that all of society should own businesses & share in the wealth evenly.
Communism is a form of complete socialism in which all means of production- all land, mines, factories, railroads and businesses would be owned by the gov’t. No private property and goods and services would be shared equally. The Communist Manifesto did not shake things at first but by the 1900s countries such as Russia, China and Cuba
If employees resisted these changes, workers would strike!
Labor Unions & Reform LawsHow did workers take action to improve their lives?
Africa & Asia
How can industrialization of nations be underlying causes for conflicts?