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Chapter 2. Summary of Concepts. Positive -Negative cycles of self-esteem (evaluations of self worth). Positive- Negative cycles of self-esteem (evaluations of self worth). “Who you are” is determined through BIOLOGICAL and SOCIAL roots.

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chapter 2

Chapter 2

Summary of Concepts

who you are is determined through biological and social roots
“Who you are” is determined through BIOLOGICAL and SOCIAL roots
  • Part of “who you are” is genetic, inherited traits. (biological)
  • Part of “who you are” has developed through your interactions with others. (socially)
influences on self concept 1 reflected appraisal
Influences on self-concept:(#1) Reflected Appraisal
  • Our self concept is based on how we THINK others see us.
  • Does this mean it’s accurate?
  • Imagine getting scolded by a teacher…
    • “Everyone thinks I’m a dolt!”
    • “Most people are feeling sympathetic to me”
    • “That girl over there thinks I’m cool for ‘taking one for the team’”
influences on self concept 2 significant others
Influences on self-concept:(#2) Significant Others
  • People whose opinions we especially value
  • Family members
  • Friends
  • Teachers
  • An acquaintance who left an imprint
influences on self concept 4 reference groups
Influences on self-concept:(#4) Reference Groups
  • Which groups do we choose to compare ourselves to?
  • What significance do we attach to the reference groups?
after age 30
After Age 30…
  • Self-concept doesn’t change much without a conscious effort.
characteristics of self concept 1 self concept is subjective
Characteristics of self-concept:(#1) Self-concept is subjective
  • “Subjective” means “based on personal feelings rather than facts”
  • Distortions
    • Obsolete information (no longer true)
    • Distorted feedback (“bad” information)
    • Perfection (unrealistic comparison)
characteristics of self concept 2 self concept resists change
Characteristics of self-concept:(#2) Self-concept resists change
  • “Cognitive conservatism” means paying attention to information that reinforces our current belief.
  • We seek out people who reinforce our perception of ourselves. (People with low self-esteem are likely to interact with those who view them unfavorably.)
culture and identity
Culture and Identity
  • America is a highly individualistic culture.
  • China is a collective culture (people gain identity by belonging to a group)
  • In Chinese, the word “I” is similar to the word “selfish.”
  • In some societies reticence (quietness) is valued.
gender and identity
Gender and Identity
  • Who would you be if you were of the opposite sex?
gender and identity1
Gender and Identity
  • Society’s expectations of gender roles can impact self-esteem
  • “Little girls are more likely to be reinforced for acting ‘sweet’ than are little boys.” (p. 58)
  • My son is sensitive and introspective. Society has not always rewarded this.
changing your self concept
CHANGING YOUR SELF-CONCEPT!
  • 1) Have REALISTIC PERCEPTION
    • HAVE you been receiving “prickly” or “fuzzy” messages?
    • Consider homemakers who return to college (p.61)
    • HAVE you received excessively negative feedback?
changing your self concept1
CHANGING YOUR SELF-CONCEPT!
  • 2) Have REALISTIC EXPECTATIONS
    • Remember the stages of learning a new skill!
    • It takes practice to analyze the factors influencing your self-concept.
    • It takes practice to use POSITIVE self-fulfilling prophecy.
    • It takes effort to surround yourself with people who will help you change your self-concept.
changing your self concept2
CHANGING YOUR SELF-CONCEPT!
  • 3) Have the WILL to change!
    • Activity (page 63) Reevaluating Your “Cant’s”

Think of 3 “can’ts” in your communication:

I can’t ask __________ for help.

I can’t tell _____________ how I feel.

I can’t express ____________very well.

changing your self concept3
CHANGING YOUR SELF-CONCEPT!
  • 3) Have the WILL to change!
    • Activity (page 63) Reevaluating Your “Cant’s”

Consider replacing “can’t” with “won’t”:

I won’t ask __________ for help.

I won’t tell _____________ how I feel.

I won’t express ____________very well.

Does that change the way you look at “can’t?

changing your self concept4
CHANGING YOUR SELF-CONCEPT!
  • 3) Have the SKILL to change!
    • SEEK knowledge (like this class)
    • Observe models (people who handle themselves in ways you would like to master)
    • Become a careful observer; adapt successful behavior to fit your style
    • Don’t give up easily!
presenting the self communication as identity management
Presenting the Self: Communication as Identity Management
  • IM? “Communication strategies that people use to influence how others view them.”
presenting the self public and private selves
Presenting the Self: Public and Private Selves
  • “Perceived self” is the person we believe ourselves to be in moments of honest examination.
presenting the self public and private selves1
Presenting the Self: Public and Private Selves
  • “Presenting self” is a public image—the way we want others to view us. (Dan on cell phone example.)
presenting the self characteristics of im
Presenting the Self: Characteristics of IM
  • We strive to construct multiple identities.
    • This is an element of communication competence.
    • Language will reflect your choice of presenting yourself.
presenting the self characteristics of im1
Presenting the Self: Characteristics of IM
  • IM is collaborative (involving others)
    • Our “identity” is created through interactions with others
presenting the self characteristics of im2
Presenting the Self: Characteristics of IM
  • IM can be deliberate or unconscious
    • Job interviews
    • Self at home
presenting the self characteristics of im3
Presenting the Self: Characteristics of IM
  • IM varies by situation
    • First days of school
    • Getting to know someone
presenting the self why manage identities
Presenting the Self: WHY MANAGE IDENTITIES?
  • To start and maintain relationships
    • “Best side” vs. “Phony”
presenting the self why manage identities1
Presenting the Self: WHY MANAGE IDENTITIES?
  • To gain compliance of others
    • To get others to behave (respond to us) in certain ways
    • Dress for success (?)
presenting the self why manage identities2
Presenting the Self: WHY MANAGE IDENTITIES?
  • To save face of others
    • Politeness
    • Restrain impulses that might make others uncomfortable
presenting the self how do we manage identities
Presenting the Self: HOW DO WE MANAGE IDENTITIES?
  • Face-to-face Impression Management
    • Manner (words and nonverbal actions)
    • Appearance (what you “announce” through dress and personal items)
    • Setting (car, home, locker)
      • Professor at college example
presenting the self identity management in cmc
Presenting the Self: Identity Management in CMC
  • CMC offers more control than face-to-face impression management
    • Instant Messaging
    • Broadcasting
presenting the self identity management in cmc1
Presenting the Self: Identity Management in CMC
  • Because CMC offers more control than face-to-face impression management
    • Easy to present false self
    • Preferred when self-presentation is threatened
presenting the self identity management honesty
Presenting the Self: Identity Management & HONESTY
  • Managing identities does not make you a liar.
  • We are always making decisions about our presentation.
presenting the self identity management honesty1
Presenting the Self: Identity Management & HONESTY
  • Each of us has a “cast of characters”
  • There are multiple HONEST ways to respond to situations.