A Guide to Generate Energy from Waste CoGen Limited, Blythe House,Blythe Park, Cresswell,Stoke - on - Trent,ST11 9RD http://www.cogenuk.com
Overview • Recovering energy from waste is only appropriate for waste that cannot be prevented, reused or recycled with less greenhouse gas emitted. • Energy recovery can be a sustainable option for waste that would otherwise go to landfill and create landfill methane emissions.
Conventional Technologies • Direct combustion (incineration) of dry biomass The heat generated by the following wastes can be used directly to warm homes and buildings or to generate electricity using a steam turbine, or both, through combined heat and power systems: • direct combustion (incineration) of dry biomass waste such as wood waste, straw and poultry litter • the biomass part of municipal waste • some commercial and industrial wastes • some construction and demolition wastes
Combustion of Waste-Derived Fuel The methane produced from landfill (landfill gas) is a waste-derived fuel. It can be used in the same way as for combustion plants or it can be injected into the national gas grid. Waste derived fuel is also referred to as Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) or Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF).
Anaerobic Digestion Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a natural process in which micro-organisms break down the organic matter found in wet biomass waste (such as sewage sludge, animal manure and slurry and waste food) in the absence of oxygen, to produce biogas (mainly a mixture of around 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide) and digestate (a nitrogen rich fertiliser).
Advanced conversion technologies • Gasification: Gasification is a type of advanced conversion that produces a combustible gas that is a mixture of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane. This gas can be used directly to generate heat and electricity. • Pyrolysis: Pyrolysis is a type of advanced conversion that can be used to produce either a combustible gas, oil or solid char (sometimes known as biocoal). In the future, it will be possible to upgrade pyrolysis oil to produce petrol and diesel using oil refining techniques.
Environmental Controls All energy from waste plants must comply with regulations concerning environmental protection, animal by-products, duty of care, health and safety, waste handling and planning permission.
Contact for more information: CoGen Limited, Blythe House,Blythe Park, Cresswell,Stoke - on - Trent,ST11 9RD http://www.cogenuk.com