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  1. Psychology Unit 1: The Field of Psychology

  2. What is Psychology?How Can it be Applied to Everyday Life?

  3. Behavior • meaning any activity we perform consciously or unconsciously ex. Breathing, blinking, lying, learning, attitudes, thoughts, physical changes and emotional changes • we study behavior to figure out why it occurs

  4. Consciousness • Is it self awareness? • Is it our cognitive ability (thinking) • Does it effect our behavior?

  5. Theory • general frameworks or structure about the nature of something ex. Erickson’s Theory of the Stages of Development • needs to be based on both physiology and psychology

  6. Types of Psychologists

  7. The History of Psychology Founding Fathers

  8. Charles Darwin “In considering the Origin of Species, it is quite conceivable that a naturalist, reflecting on the mutual affinities of organic beings, on their embryological relations, their geographical distribution, geological succession, and other such facts, might come to the conclusion that each species had not been independently created, but had descended, like varieties, from other species.” – Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species

  9. Darwin cont. • Darwin observed that a change in climate, environment, food supply, etc could cause a change in an animal’s behavior or environmental adaptation • he inspired scientist to study animals in an attempt to understand humans better • From him we get animal psychology

  10. Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) • Called the father of psychology because in 1879 he started the first laboratory for studying humans • he tries to theorize about what makes up the thoughts and feelings of humans • Finds that introspection is the key to figuring out why you feel a certain way *looking into ones self and describing what is there * Extreme training required to evaluate introspections

  11. Sigmund Freud(1856 – 1939) • Developed one of the first comprehensive theories of personality - How Personality Develops - What can go wrong - How to fix it • Theory is based on the effects of the unconscious conflicts with the individual - influences if the unconscious and of early childhood • Freud hugely impacted American Psychology in the 1950’s and 60’s but by the 80’s his influence had declined

  12. William James ( 1842 – 1910) • His main interest was how humans function and adapt to their environment • He preferred to look at human experiences as a complete whole each being slightly different from one another ex. Thinking is a stream of ideas rather than a series of separate thoughts all strung together • While basic rules of behavior apply, psychology must never loose sight of the individual • He wrote one of the first a widely used and very important textbook – Principles in Psychology

  13. John B Watson ( 1878 – 1958) • He studied the impact of learning on human emotion • Believed that what we feel and do depends on connections and associations we have made in the past afraid = bad experience • careful parenting could prevent psychological problems

  14. Approaches to Psychology AKA Perspectives

  15. Neurobiological Viewpoint Criticism • Views your behavior as a result of physical, chemical or biological abnormality in your body. • Doesn’t take into account life experiences or the environment.

  16. Behavioral Viewpoint Criticism • Views behavior as the result of learning and associations (experiences) • We act because of our environment • Doesn’t take into account a persons present situation or peer pressure

  17. Humanistic Viewpoint Criticism • Belief that people are intrinsically good and are capable of helping themselves • Humans can achieve perfection • Doesn’t give weight to environmental factors or past experiences

  18. Psychoanalytical Viewpoint Criticism • Belief that people behave as a result of unconscious thoughts and forces • To understand these behaviors one must undergo psychoanalysis with a trained therapist • Negates free will and conscious decision making

  19. Cognitive Viewpoint Criticism • Behavior is based on cognition • Humans analyze, evaluate and problem solve to deal with our environment • Downplays effects of emotions

  20. Socio-cultural Viewpoint Criticism • Behavior is influenced by social, ethnic, racial, religious and economic constructs placed on a person • List can be infinite • Does not take motivation or emotion into consideration

  21. Methods of Psychology Conducting and Creating Psychological Experiments

  22. Critical Question: Which do you believe is stronger, the body or the mind? Can your mind cure an ache or pain simply by thinking about it or by believing you will feel better? Why did the patients taking the placebo pill feel better?

  23. The Power of the Human Mind • Placebo – This is a medicine that has no active ingredients, usually made up of a simple sugar that can be processes easily through the body. The idea is that patients taking this pill will think they are being treated.

  24. The Power of the Human Mind • Double Blind Study – A study during which neither the participants nor the researchers know to which group any subject belongs. • we use these types of studies so that a research cannot unknowingly alter the results of the study (biases to a certain group)

  25. The Power of the Human Mind • Biases – Be aware of your personal biases and the biases of your subjects when working on an experiment.

  26. Experimental Procedures

  27. Scientific Method • Hypothesis – A statement of the result an researcher expects to get at the end of an experiment • Subjects – a group of people or animals on whom the experiment will be conducted • Variables – these are the factors that change in the study, some studies have multiple variables, studies with hidden variables can invalidate or change the results of a study.

  28. Scientific Method cont. • Independent Variables – the factor that the experimenter changes in a study • Dependent Variable – this factor in a study changes in response to the change made by the independent variable – what is being effected • Control – removal of factors that may cause the experiment to become invalid

  29. Scientific Method cont. • Control Group – this group is actively involved in the study but does not experience the independent variable (Placebo Group) • Experimental Group – this group takes part in the study and experiences the independent variable • Results – the findings of the study • If the hypothesis turns out to be incorrect the results are just as valid as if you proved the hypothesis to be true

  30. Methods of Research

  31. Methods of Research cont.

  32. Results • Validity – meaning that the experiment measures what it says that it measures. • Reliability – meaning that you will get the same results each time the experiment is run

  33. The Experimental Procedure Hypothesis If “X” (independent variable) is presented or changes Then “Y” (dependent variable) will happen or change as a result Test your hypothesis on Subjects People or animals randomly divided into groups Experimental Group Experience the independent variable Record & Measure the results (Dependent Variable) Control Group Do not experience the independent variable (Placebo) Record & Measure the results (Dependent Variable) Compare the results of the 2 Groups Come to a conclusion & record your findings

  34. The End