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Energy Systems Dr M Taghavi Mehran_taghavi@yahoo.com. Energy for Exercise. Food is the source of energy for the human body and it also provides nutrients for growth and repair. When food is eaten, this is what happens… .

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Energy Systems

  • Dr M Taghavi
  • Mehran_taghavi@yahoo.com
slide2

Energy for Exercise

Food is the source of energy for the human body and it also provides nutrients for growth and repair. When food is eaten, this is what happens…

  • The food is broken down into soluble chemicals (e.g. glucose) by digestion in the gut.
  • The soluble chemicals pass through the gut wall into the blood.
  • The blood carries the soluble food chemicals to all of the body’s cells, where they will be used for:

Energy

Growth

Repair

slide3

Making Energy Available to the Cells of the Body

The muscles of the body use bothcarbohydratesandfatstoproduceenergy. The following diagram shows how carbohydrates are used.

  • Carbohydratesin the form ofstarchgained from foods such aspasta, bread and potatoesare eaten.
  • The glucose enters thesmall intestinewhere it passes intotheblood.
  • The starch isdigestedin the gut and turned intoglucosemolecules.
slide4

The glucose is then used in 3 different ways…

Body Cells

Liver

Glucose diffuses easily into the cells and is used to meet their energy demands.

Here some of the glucose is stored as glycogen and used to maintain blood sugar levels.

Skeletal Muscle

Glucose is stored here as glycogen and is used when the body is working harder.

the energy systems

High energy phosphate system

b) Anaerobic glycolytic system

c) Aerobic oxidative system

The Energy Systems
slide6

Energy systems

  • Aerobic
  • Anaerobic

Oxygen system

Phosphate system

Lactate system

Dr. taghavi

slide7

+

Pi

ATP

+

H2O

ADP

+

Energy

2. Phosphate molecule (Pi) is released from ATP

(ATP ADP)

a) ATP breakdown (ATP turnover)

1. Hydrolysis of the unstable phosphate groups of

ATP molecule by H2O

3. Energy is released (38 to 42 kJ, or 9 to 10 kcal/mol ATP)

slide8

+

Pi

ADP

+

Energy

ATP

c) ATP resynthesis

  • Initial stores of ATP in the muscles are used up
  • very quickly and ATP must be regenerated

2. ATP is formed by recombination of ADP and Pi

3. Regeneration of ATP requires energy (from

breakdown of food molecules)

high energy phosphate system

ENERGY

Creatine

P

High Energy Phosphate System

ADP + Pi ATP

slide10

Energy systems

Phosphate

The main source for the onset of exercise.

Anaerobic alactic System

CP + ADP ► Creatine + ATP ► Expulsion Energy

Limited store ► 2 – 10 sec.

Recovery time: 3-5 min complete rest.

Promotion of CP system:

▲CP store

▲CP breakdown enzymatic process

CP stores increase by 25% to 50% after 7 months endurance training

CP Enzymatic break down advancement promote after 8 weeks speed training

Dr. taghavi

slide11

Anaerobic Respiration – Without Oxygen

Anaerobic respiration involves the release of a little energy, very quickly from the incomplete breakdown of glucose without usingoxygen,inside the cells.

The Process of Anaerobic Respiration

1.Glucose is made available by the breakdown of glycogen stored in the working muscles.

Energy for muscles to contractand create movement

2.The glucose is used by the muscles of the body to produce energy, without the use of oxygen.

Glucose

Lactic Acid

3.This process creates lactic acid, which passes back into the blood for removal.

slide12

How Anaerobic Respiration Happens

1

2

3

Glucose is transported to the muscles of the body via the blood.

Glucose passes into the muscles cells and is used to produce energy for muscular

contractions.

Anaerobic respiration

produces lactic acid

as a waste product.

Facts about Anaerobic Respiration

  • Duringanaerobicrespiration, yourmuscles are not supplied with enough oxygen.
  • Thelactic acidbuilds up due to the shortageofoxygen. This is known as anoxygen debt,which needsto be paid back once exercisinghas finished.
  • The lactic acid build-up will soon make your musclesfeeltired and painful, so exercising anaerobically can only be carried out forshort periods of time.
slide13

Anaerobic Respiration is howsprintersproduce theenergythat is usedin short periods of‘allouteffort’- high intensity.

Oxygen cannot reach the muscles fast enough, so anaerobic respiration is used.

Glucose Produces…

slide14

Anaerobic Respiration is howsprintersproduce theenergythat is usedin short periods of‘allouteffort’- high intensity.

Oxygen cannot reach the muscles fast enough, so anaerobic respirationis used.

Glucose produces…

Some is used for

muscle contractions,

creating movement.

Lactic acid quickly builds up & makes the muscles feel tired & painful. ‘All out effort’ cannot last for very long!

slide15

Anaerobic Respiration is howsprintersproduce theenergythat is usedin short periods of‘allouteffort’- high intensity.

Oxygen cannot reach the muscles fast enough, so anaerobic respiration is used.

Glucose produces…

Some is used for

muscle contractions,

creating movement.

Lactic acid quickly builds up & makes the muscles feel tired & painful. ‘All out effort’ cannot last for very long!

The rest is converted into heat to warm the body.

slide16

Energy systems

Anaerobic system

The emergency source of energy.

The energy supply for intensive activities last 2-3 min.

Glucose + ADP ► Lactic acid + ATP

Lactic acid ► Acidosis ► upper lactate threshold (4mmol/l)

Muscle soreness-fatigue

Mental impairments

Recovery time: 75min. + cool down activity

Dr. taghavi

slide17

Aerobic Respiration – With Oxygen

The Process of Aerobic Respiration

Aerobic respiration involves the release of energy from theslowbreakdown of glucoseusingoxygen,inside the cells.

Water

Glucose

1. Glucose and oxygen are transported to the working muscles bythe blood.

Energy for Muscles

to contract and

create Movement

2. Glucose and oxygen are then used by the muscles of the body to produce energy.

CarbonDioxide

3. This process creates carbon dioxide and water.

Oxygen

4. The carbon dioxide passes back into the blood for removal.

slide18

How Aerobic Respiration Happens…

1

2

3

Glucose and oxygen are carried by the haemoglobin in the

red blood cells.

Glucose and oxygen pass into all the muscle cells of the body and is used to help produce energy for muscular contractions.

Aerobic respiration produces carbon dioxide & water as waste products.

Facts about Aerobic Respiration

  • Duringaerobicrespiration, theheartandlungssupply the muscles with plenty ofoxygen.
  • Thecarbon dioxideis breathed out via thelungs, while thewater is lost as sweat, urineor in theairwe breathe out as water vapour.
  • As long as the muscles are supplied withenoughoxygen, exercising aerobically can becarried out for alongperiod of time.
slide19

Energy systems

Aerobic system

The main source for long lasting exercises.

Fats + O2 + ADP ► CO2 + water + ATP

1- Glucose + ADP ► Lactic acid + ATP

2- Lactic acid + O2 + ADP ► CO2 + water + ATP

Carbohydrate store is limited but Fat store is unlimited.

Low intensity exercises ► burn fats

High intensity exercises ► burn carbohydrate

Well trained athlete burn fats for a longer time thus saving carbohydrate.

Training increase aerobic capacity by 50%.

Dr. taghavi

slide20

Aerobic respiration is howmarathonrunners produce theenergythatis used in long periods of less intensive effort.

Glucose and

oxygen produce…

slide21

Aerobic respiration is howmarathonrunners produce theenergythatis used in long periods of less intensive effort.

Some is used for

muscle contractions,

creating movement.

Glucose and

oxygen produce…

slide22

Aerobic respiration is howmarathonrunners produce theenergythatis used in long periods of less intensive effort.

Some is used for

muscle contractions,

creating movement.

The rest is converted

into heat to warmthe body.

Glucose and

oxygen produce…

Water, which is carried away by the blood and excreted through the lungs, sweat and urine.

Carbon dioxide, which is carriedaway by the blood& excreted through the lungs.

slide23

Sports

Max. Speed

Max. Endurance

Complex Speed & Endurance

Wrestling

Complex Speed & Endurance

Low weights Max. Speed

High weights Max. Endurance

Dr. taghavi

slide25

Muscle fibers

Slow Twitch – Type I

Fast Twitch – Types IIa & IIb

Dr. taghavi

slide26

Muscle fibers

Dr. taghavi

slide27

Muscle fibers ratio

Sprinters

Shot putters

Long-high jumpers

Middle-distance runners

5, 10 km- Semi marathon

Marathon & Ultra long distance

Dr. taghavi

slide28

Energy Systems in Wrestling

Anaerobic System

Lactic Acid

100%

Energy

Aerobic System

ATP-PC

Time 0 8 sec 2 min 4 15 135

Dr. taghavi

slide29

Energy Systems in Wrestling

100%

Aerobic System

70%

Intensity

HR-reserve

Time 0 8 sec 2 min 4 15 135

Dr. taghavi

slide30

Energy Systems in Wrestling

Anaerobic System

100%

Aerobic System

70%

Intensity

HR-reserve

Time 0 8 sec 2 min 4 15 135

Dr. taghavi

slide31

Energy Systems in Wrestling

Anaerobic System

100%

Aerobic System

70%

Intensity

HR-reserve

CP

CP

Time 0 8 sec 2 min 4 15 135

Dr. taghavi

slide32

Source of energy for wrestling

Fuel

  • Carbohydrate
  • Fat
  • Protein

Energy Systems

  • Anaerobic ATP-PC
  • Anaerobic Lactic acid
  • Aerobic

ATP

ENERGY

MOVEMENT

  • Intensity of Sport
  • Duration

Dr. taghavi

slide33

Anaerobic System in wrestling

  • Carbohydrate

Anaerobic System

  • Anaerobic ATP-PC
  • Anaerobic Lactic acid

ATP

ENERGY

▲ Lactic Acid

Concentration

In Muscles

▲ Muscular pain

▼ Muscular contraction

▼ Mental concentration

Weakness

Dr. taghavi

slide34

Targeted training

Training should be specific, targeted at the energy system involved in the particular sport.

Optimal training takes place at a workout intensity that maximally activates the complete energy system necessary for the sport.

Dr. taghavi

slide35

Heart Rate

Heart Rate

Workload intensity

The best indicator to determine the exercise intensity is

Heart Rate Monitoring

Dr. taghavi

slide36

Training intensity

Training intensity is essential for reaching maximum performance.

Low intensity Necessary intensity High intensity

Not improve Success Injury-Overtraining

  • As condition improves, training intensity should also increase.
  • Training scheme should be continually evaluated & adapted.

Dr. taghavi