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Introduction to Cloud Computing Dr. Hanem El-Sheikh firstname.lastname@example.org
The Back Story From ground to cloud
Internal Storage • Content is stored on THAT computer • To use content must return to THAT computer • Cannot access this content from another device or computer
Programs • Purchase programs. • Load to the computer. • Each computer would need the program loaded and stored on the internal drive .
External Storage • Allows your content to become mobile. • Save to the storage device. • Take device to any compatible computer. • Open and use content. CD/DVD Thumb Drive External Hard Drive SD Card Micro SD Card
Networked Storage • Multiple work stations talk to one unit that stores information and data. • Data is not saved to the C: drive, but to a network drive. • Can retrieve the data stored to the network from any of the connected workstations.
The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange
The Traditional Server Concept • System Administrators often talk about servers as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. • Servers are often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. • If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed, then the System Administrators must add in a new server.
The Traditional Server Concept • Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, then the service is down. • System Admins. can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. However, even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment.
And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange
The Virtual Server Concept • Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware. • -This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. Hypervisor layer between Guest OS and hardware
Virtualization: • The ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources.
Virtualization • Virtual workspaces: • An abstraction of an execution environment that can be made dynamically available to authorized clients by using well-defined protocols, • Resource quota (e.g. CPU, memory share), • Software configuration (e.g. O/S, provided services). • Implement on Virtual Machines (VMs): • Abstraction of a physical host machine, • Hypervisor intercepts and emulates instructions from VMs, and allows management of VMs, • VMWare, Xen, etc. • Provide infrastructure API: • Plug-ins to hardware/support structures App App App OS OS OS Hypervisor Hardware Virtualized Stack
Hypervisor -Software that controls the layer between the hardware operating systems. It allows multiple operating systems to run on the same physical hardware. There are two types of hypervisors: Bare metal: which allows the hypervisor to run directly on the hardware. hosted architecture: in which the hypervisor runs on top of an existing operating system.
The Virtual Server Concept • Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware. -This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. • Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. • A computer on which a hypervisor is running one or more virtual machines is defined as a host machine. • A hypervisor is a piece of computer software, firmware or hardware that creates and runs virtual machines. • Each virtual machine has a guest operating systems, which is managed by the hypervisor. • If the environment is built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. • Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance.
Welcome to the New World of Cloud Computing
Cloud Computing • Cloud Computing : The migration of computing services provided by on-premises datacenters to remote systems located on the Internet. • The customer is charged only for resources consumed (pay as used and on demand). • It is an internet based service delivery model which provides internet based services, computing and storage for users in all markets including financial, health care and government. • Cloud computing is defined as dynamically scalable computing resources that are available over the Internet. • Clients can: • Put their data on the platform instead of on their own desktop PCs and/or on their own servers. • They can put their applications on the cloud and use the servers within the cloud to do processing and data manipulations etc.
The Cloud Requires • An Internet connection • An account - Created with a user name and a password • Agree to Terms
Saving documents • When you do a “save as” on your computer, you choose where to save the material. Internal Storage External Storage Network
Cloud Storage • Create an Account – User name and password • Content lives with the account in the cloud. • Log onto any computer with Wi-Fi to find your content.
Downloads for storage • Download a cloud based app to a computer you own • The app lives on your Computer • Save files to the app • When connected to the Internet it will sync with the cloud • The Cloud can be accessed from any Internet connection
Save file as • Do “save as” to save a file to your computer and the cloud • The syncing folders makes data retrieval easier • Box and DropBox require this download to work
Upload Documents • Log-in to the online storage account • Click upload a file • Find the file on hard drive, network, or external storage • Upload to cloud storage 2 GB 5 GB 5 GB 7 GB
Internet is required • Creation is happening in the cloud • Saving is going to the cloud • To retrieve files, must return to the cloud
Benefits • Saving Large Files • Multiple file types – Photos, videos, presentations, docs • Back-up of stored files • File Sharing • Access from devices • Nothing to forget (thumb drive, cd) • Project collaboration
Cloud Computing Cont’ • Clouds were built for a number of reasons: • Shared Computing. • Shared memory. • Shared Storage and access resources. • Cloud Providers deploy multi-tenancy to achieve efficient utilization of resources , while decreasing cost. • From a consumers perspective, they need to use resources as much and as far as needed while being able to increase or decrease resources consumption based on real time basis. • Cloud Computing model meets these demands and restrictions by delivering two key characteristics: • Multi-tenancy • Elasticity
Cloud Multi-tenancy ModelMulti-tenancy implies sharing of computational resources, storage, services, and applications with other tenants, residing on same physical or logical platform at provider’ premises.
NIST :National Institute of Standards and Technology • The role of (NIST) in cloud computing is to promote the effective and secure use of the technology within government and industry by providing technical guidance and promoting standards. • NIST provides NIST's definition of cloud computing as well as related guidance. • This definition will serve as a foundation for NIST's upcoming publication on cloud models, architectures, and deployment strategies. • NIST is responsible for accelerating the U.S. Federal Government’s secure adoption of cloud computing. • In order to execute this responsibility, NIST is leading a number of efforts to develop cloud standards and guidelines, in close consultation and collaboration with standards bodies, the private sector, and other stakeholders.
The NIST definition of cloud computing (SP 800-145, September 2011) Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model promotes availability and is defined in terms of 5 essential characteristics. 3 service models. 3) 4 deployment models.
The Essential Cloud Characteristics are: Five • On-demand self-service • Broad network access • Resource pooling -Location independence • Rapid elasticity • Measured service The Cloud Service Models are: Three • Software as a Service (SaaS) – Use provider’s applications over a network • Platform as a Service (PaaS) – Deploy customer-created applications to a cloud • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) – Rent processing, storage, network capacity, and other fundamental computing resources
The Cloud Deployment Models are: Four • Private cloud: enterprise owned or leased • Community cloud: shared infrastructure for specific community • Public cloud: sold to the public, mega-scale infrastructure • Hybrid cloud: composition of two or more cloud types
5 Essential Characteristics: On-demand self-service: A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each service provider. Broad network access: Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, tablets, laptops, and workstations). Resource pooling: The provider’s computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. There is a sense of location independence in that the customer generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources but may be able to specify location at a higher level of abstraction (e.g., country, state, or datacenter). Examples of resources include storage, processing, memory, and network bandwidth. Rapid elasticity: Capabilities can be elastically provisioned and released, in some cases automatically, to scale rapidly outward and inward commensurate with demand. To the consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited and can be appropriated in any quantity at any time. Measured service: Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g., storage, processing, bandwidth, and active user accounts). Resource usage can be monitored, controlled, and reported, providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service.
Cloud Service Models Software as a Service (SaaS) Platform as a Service (PaaS) Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) SalesForce CRM LotusLive Google App Engine Adopted from: Effectively and Securely Using the Cloud Computing Paradigm by peter Mell, Tim Grance
Delivery Models While cloud-based software services are maturing, Cloud platform and infrastructure offering are still in their early stages ! From  Cloud Security and Privacy by Mather and Kumaraswamy