dr yc pang department of surgery united christian hospital l.
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Dr. YC Pang Department of Surgery United Christian Hospital. Focused Parathyroidectomy: pre-operative localization and intraoperative PTH monitoring. Introduction. .. It seems hardly credible that the loss of bodies so tiny as the parathyroids should be follow by a result so disastrous.

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dr yc pang department of surgery united christian hospital
Dr. YC Pang

Department of Surgery

United Christian Hospital

Focused Parathyroidectomy: pre-operative localization and intraoperative PTH monitoring

introduction
Introduction

.. It seems hardly credible that the loss of bodies so tiny as the parathyroids should be follow by a result so disastrous.

William S. Halsted, 1907

Halsted WS. Hypoparathyreosis, status parathyreoprivus, and transplantation of the parathyroid glands. Am J Med Sci 1907;134:1–12.

introduction3
Introduction
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT)

- a common endocrine disorder

  • Classical manifestations

- stones, bones, groans and moans

  • Asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism

- increasingly diagnosed due to routine biochemical testing

introduction4
Introduction

Bilateral cervical exploration

Focused parathyroidectomy

focused parathyroidectomy
Focused Parathyroidectomy
  • localized by preoperative sestamibi scan or US
  • A central or lateral incision measuring from 2 to 4 cm over the targeted lesion
  • Only the abnormal parathyroid gland is identified and excised
focused parathyroidectomy6
Focused Parathyroidectomy
  • Improved cosmetic results with smaller incisions
  • Decreased pain, shorter operative time
  • Ambulatory surgery
  • Rapid postoperative recovery
  • Less injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve
  • Decreased postoperative hypocalcaemia
  • Comparable success rates to conventional BNE
indication for parathyroidectomy
Indication for parathyroidectomy
  • Symptomatic
  • Clear indication for surgical treatment
  • Asymptomatic
  • Serum calcium level 1.0 mg/dL (0.25mmol/L) or greater than the accepted normal range
  • 24-h urinary calcium excretion greater than 400 mg/day

- Creatinine clearance reduced by 30%

  • T-score less than –2.5 at any site
  • age younger than 50 years

NIH guidelines

Bilezikian JP, Potts JT Jr, Fuleihan Gel H, et al. Summary statement from a workshop on asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism: a perspective for the 21st century. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87(12):5353–61

too conservative
Too conservative?
  • Many experience surgeons basing the operative decision not only on these objective criteria but on subjective complaints as well
  • Several studies showing improvements of depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances, poor memory, and cognitive impairment after parathyroidectomy

Kouvaraki MA, Greer M, Sharma S, et al. Indications for operative intervention in patients with asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism: practice patterns of endocrine surgery. Surgery 2006;139:527–34

Pasieka JL, Parsons LL. Prospective surgical outcome study of relief of symptoms following surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. World J

Surg 1998;22(6):513–9

too conservative9
Too conservative?
  • Recent evidence from a long-term study of primary hyperparathyroidism over 15 years suggests the NIH guidelines for parathyroidectomy do not reliably predict worsening disease progression in asymptomatic patients

Rubin MR, Bilezikian JP, McMahon DJ, et al. The natural history of primary hyperparathyroidism with or without parathyroid surgery after 15 years. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93(9):3462–70

asymptomatic phpt
Asymptomatic pHPT
  • Most of them present with vague/non-specific symptoms
  • <5% truly asymptomatic
  • Evidence of improvement in objective and subjective parameters
  • Evolution of parathyroid surgery
  • Pro-active approach should be adopted
preoperative localization
Preoperative localization
  • The only localization that a patient needs who has primary hyperparathyroidism is the localization of an experienced surgeon!

—John L. Doppmann, 1991

Brennan MF. Lessons learned. Ann Surg Oncol 2006;13(10):1322–8

preoperative localization12
Preoperative localization
  • Sestamibi scintigraphy
  • Ultrasound
  • Sestamibi + SPECT
  • Combined Mibi and USG
  • CT/MRI
sestamibi scintigraphy
Sestamibi scintigraphy
  • Able to localize 80% to 90% of single abnormal parathyroid glands
  • Less sensitive in the diagnosis of multiglandular disease (MGD)
  • False positive: thyroid nodule, lymph node
  • False negative: small parathyroid lesion, suboptimal dose

Carniero-Pla DM, Solorzano CC, Irvin GL. Consequences of targeted parathyroidectomy guide by localizing studies without intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring. J Am Coll Surg 2006;202:715–22

ultrasound
Ultrasound
  • Commonly used for preoperative parathyroid localization
  • Delineating an enlarged parathyroid gland from surrounding structures
  • 70-80% accuracy

Berri RN, Lloyd LR. Detection of parathyroid adenoma in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: the use of office-based ultrasound in preoperative localization. Am J Surg 2006;191:311–4

surgeon performed ultrasound sus
Surgeon-performed ultrasound (SUS)
  • Obtain real-time information regarding the anatomical location of enlarged parathyroid glands among several other structures
  • Allows for evaluation of thyroid abnormalities that may require surgical treatment
sestamibi spect
Sestamibi-SPECT
  • Particularly useful in detecting smaller parathyroid lesions that may reside posterior to thyroid gland, at retroesophagus or within mediastinum

Yip L, Pryma DA, Yim JH, et al. Can a lightbulb sestamibi SPECT accurately predict single-gland disease in sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism. World J Surg 2008;32(5):784–92

combined sestamibi and usg
Combined sestamibi and USG
  • Increase accuracy of localization of a single adenoma from 94% to 99%
  • Operative success rate approach 99% when result concordant, obviating the need for Intraoperative PTH monitoring (IPM)
  • Concordant only 50% to 60% of the time

Mihai R, Palazzo FF, Gleeson FV, et al. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy without intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Br J Surg 2007;94:42–7

intraoperative pth monitoring
Intraoperative PTH Monitoring
  • Intact PTH has short half-life (2-4 minutes)
  • Normal parathyroid glands in patients with hyperparathyroidism are suppressed by hypercalcemia
  • The changes in PTH detected by the rapid PTH assay preoperative, preexcision, and postexcision is able to confirm or refute biochemical cure
miami criteria
Miami Criteria
  • A decrease of intact PTH levels greater than 50% from the highest value in 10 minutes after removal of all abnormal parathyroid tissue
  • Operative success with predictive cure in 97% of cases

Carneiro DM, Solorzano CC, Nader MC, et al. Comparison of intraoperative iPTH assay (QPTH) criteria in guiding parathyroidectomy: which criterion is the most accurate? Surgery 2003;134(6):973–81

tissue confirmation
Tissue confirmation
  • Aspirate of parathyroid tissue diluted in a syringe containing 1 mL saline
  • Rapid assay yields PTH values greater than 1500 pg/mL confirm diagnosis
success rate of ipm
Success rate of IPM
  • Increase by 10% at initial operation
  • Increase by 18% in reoperative patients for failed parathyroidectomy

Chen H, Pruhs Z, Starling JR, et al. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone testing improves cure rates in patients undergoing minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. Surgery 2005;138(4):583–90

Irvin GL, Molinari AS, Figueroa C, et al. Improved success rate in reoperative parathyroidectomy with intraoperative PTH assay. Ann Surg 1999;229(6):874–9

routine use of ipm in focused parathyroidectomy
Routine use of IPM in focused parathyroidectomy?
  • MIBI alone

- multiple case series and a single retrospective comparative study recommend the use of IPM

  • Concordant MIBI and USG

- add little if any benefit to the rate of cure

  • Discordant scans

- IPM recommended

Intraoperative adjuncts in surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism

Barney J. Harrison & Frederic Triponez

Langenbecks Arch Surg (2009) 394:799–809

local experience in uch

Focused approach parathyroidectomy without intraoperative PTH monitoring is a safe and effective treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism

Dr. YC Pang, Dr. KP Tsui, Dr. CY Choi, Dr. TL Chow, Dr. SH Lam

Department of Surgery

United Christian Hospital

Local experience in UCH

retrospective study
Retrospective study
  • Focused parathyroidectomy
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism
  • Jan 2002 – June 2009
result
Result
  • 82 patients - primary hyperparathyroidism
  • 76(92.7%) - focused approach parathyroidectomy
  • Mean age 60.3 (21-88)
  • M:F 19:57
  • Mean pre-operative serum calcium: 2.8 mmol/L
  • Mean pre-op PTH : 69.84 pmol/L
preoperative imaging28
Preoperative imaging
  • Sensitivity of USG 67/76 (88.2%)
  • Sensitivity of MIBI 55/72 (76.4%)
  • Combined USG + MIBI 74/76 (97.4%)
  • 2 failed localization by USG/MIBI
    • Localized by CT scan
perioperative data
Perioperative data
  • 76 (92.7%) focused approach parathyroidectomy
  • 49 (64.5%) LA
  • 27 (35.5%) GA
  • Mean operating time 61.2 minutes
  • Use of IPM: 4 patients (5.3%)
patients without ipm
Patients without IPM
  • 70 (97.2%) operative success
  • No persistent hypoparathyroidism
  • 3 patients (3.9%) suffered from hungry bone syndrome requiring prolonged calcium supplement
  • 4 patients (5.3%) transient RLN palsy
  • 2 patients (2.6%) permanent RLN palsy
patient with ipm
Patient with IPM
  • Only 4 patients
  • All of them had > 50% reduction in PTH 10mins after excision
  • 100% operative success
  • No recurrence
  • No hypocalcemia
  • No RLN palsy
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Focused parathyroidectomy is the well adopted treatment for most of the cases
  • Combined USG and MIBI scan increases accuracy of localization
  • Intraoperative PTH monitor is recommended in case of discordant scan to improve the operative success
conclusion33
Conclusion
  • Resources govern the choice of pre-operative localization method, or intraoperative adjuncts
  • In properly selected case, focused parathyroidectomy without routine use of IPM is safe and effective treatment