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##### Common Core Standards

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**Common Core Standards**Marian Wolak Director of CIPD DDOE December 16, 2011**Mission Statement**The Common Core State Standards provide a consistent, clear understanding of what students are expected to learn, so teachers and parents know what they need to do to help them. The standards are designed to be robust and relevant to the real world, reflecting the knowledge and skills that our young people need for success in college and careers. With American students fully prepared for the future, our communities will be best positioned to complete successfully in the global economy.**The Common Core State Standards Initiative**Beginning in the spring of 2009, Governors and state commissioners of education from 48 states, 2 territories and the District of Columbia committed to developing a common core of state K-12 English-language arts (ELA) and mathematics standards. The Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI) is a state-led effort coordinated by the National Governors Association (NGA) and the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). • www.corestandards.org**Why Common Core State Standards?**• Preparation: The standards are college- and career-ready. They will help prepare students with the knowledge and skills they need to succeed in education and training after high school. • Competition: The standards are internationally benchmarked. Common standards will help ensure our students are globally competitive. • Equity: Expectations are consistent for all – and not dependent on a student’s zip code. • Clarity: The standards are focused, coherent, and clear. Clearer standards help students (and parents and teachers) understand what is expected of them. • Collaboration: The standards create a foundation to work collaboratively across states and districts, pooling resources and expertise, to create curricular tools, professional development, common assessments and other materials.**College and Career Ready**Students who are college- and career-ready is the larger goal • Common Core State Standards are a tool for getting us there They define performance standards for today’s students – the WHAT • HOW we get to readiness is through effective instruction Teaching standards define what effective instruction looks like Leadership standards define what school leaders do to support instruction The goal of professional development is to improve instruction**What are the Common Core Standards?**• Aligned with college and work expectations • Focused and coherent • Include rigorous content and application of knowledge through high-order skills • Build upon strengths and lessons of current state standards • Internationally benchmarked so that all students are prepared to succeed in our global economy and society • Based on evidence and research • State led – coordinated by NGA Center and CCSSO**5 Guiding Principles of the Common Core Standards**Development • College and Career Ready • Use the best state standards • Solid evidence • Focus • Local flexibility, teacher judgment**Common Core Standards**English/Language Arts**Key Changes: ELA**• Text Complexity • Analyze, Infer, and Give Evidence • Writing to Sources • Mastery of Writing and Speaking • Academic Vocabulary**Design and Organization**Three main sections • K−5 (cross-disciplinary) • 6−12 English Language Arts • 6−12 Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects Shared responsibility for students’ literacy development Three appendices • A: Research and evidence; glossary of key terms • B: Reading text exemplars; sample performance tasks • C: Annotated student writing samples**Design and Organization**Four strands • Reading (including Reading Foundational Skills) • Writing • Speaking and Listening • Language An integrated model of literacy Media requirements blended throughout**Design and Organization**College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards • Broad expectations consistent across grades and content areas • Based on evidence about college and workforce training expectations • Range and content**Design and Organization**K−12 standards • Grade-specific end-of-year expectations • Developmentally appropriate, cumulative progression of skills and understandings • One-to-one correspondence with CCR standards**College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards**• Speaking & Listening • Comprehension & Collaboration • Presentation of Knowledge & Ideas • Language • Conventions of Standard English • Knowledge of Language • Vocabulary Acquisition and Use Writing Text Types & Purposes Production and Distribution of Writing Research to Build & Present Knowledge Range of Writing • Reading • Key Ideas & Details • Craft & Structure • Integration of Knowledge & Ideas • Range of Reading and Text Complexity Appendices Literacy in History/Social Studies, and Technical Studies Grades 6-12 Reading & Writing Standards for content area subjects A: Research behind the standards & Glossary B: Text exemplars (complexity, quality and range of reading, performance tasks for grade levels C: Annotated samples of student of student writing at various grade levels Foundational Skills Grades K-5 Print Concepts Phonological Awareness Phonics & Word Recognition Fluency**Reading**Comprehension (Standards 1−9) • Standards for reading literature and informational texts • Strong and growing across-the-curriculum emphasis on students’ ability to read and comprehend informational texts • Aligned with NAEP Reading framework Range of reading and level of text complexity(Standard 10, Appendices A and B) • “Staircase” of growing text complexity across grades • High-quality literature and informational texts in a range of genres and subgenres**Text Complexity**• Quantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexity often best measured by computer software. • Qualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands often best measured by an attentive human reader. • Reader and Task considerations – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned often best made by educators employing their professional judgment. Qualitative Quantitative Reader and Task**Standard 10: Text Complexity**Middle School: Reading Standards for Informational Text 6-8 Grade 6: By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. Grade 7: By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. Grade 8: By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.**Standard 10: Text Complexity**High School: Reading Standards for Informational Text 9-12 By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 9-10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently. By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 11-CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 11-CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.**Key Ideas and Details**RI.7.1. Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. RI.7.2. Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text. RI.7.3. Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text (e.g., how ideas influence individuals or events, or how individuals influence ideas or events). Craft and Structure RI.7.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone. RI.7.5. Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas. RI.7.6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas RI.7.7. Compare and contrast a text to an audio, video, or multimedia version of the text, analyzing each medium’s portrayal of the subject (e.g., how the delivery of a speech affects the impact of the words). RI.7.8. Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims. RI.7.9. Analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts.**Performance Task**Students determine the figurative and connotative meanings of words such as wayfaring, laconic, and taciturnity as well as of phrases such as hold his peace in John Steinbeck’s Travels with Charley: In Search of America. They analyze how Steinbeck’s specific word choices and diction impact the meaning and tone of his writing and the characterization of the individuals and places he describes. [RI.7.4]**Reading Foundational Skills**Four categories (standards 1−4) • Print concepts (K−1) • Phonological awareness (K−1) • Phonics and word recognition (K−5) • Fluency (K−5) • Not an end in and of themselves • Differentiated instruction**Writing**Writing types/purposes (standards 1−3) • Writing arguments • Writing informative/explanatory texts • Writing narratives • Strong and growing across-the-curriculum emphasis on students writing arguments and informative/explanatory texts • Aligned with NAEP Writing framework**Writing**Production and distribution of writing (standards 4−6) • Developing and strengthening writing • Using technology to produce and enhance writing Research (standards 7−9) • Engaging in research and writing about sources Range of writing (standard 10) • Writing routinely over various time frames**Speaking and Listening**Comprehension and collaboration (standards 1−3) • Day-to-day, purposeful academic talk in one-on-one, small-group, and large-group settings Presentation of knowledge and ideas (standards 4−6) • Formal sharing of information and concepts, including through the use of technology**Language**Conventions of standard English Knowledge of language (standards 1−3) • Using standard English in formal writing and speaking • Using language effectively and recognizing language varieties Vocabulary (standards 4−6) • Determining word meanings and word nuances • Acquiring general academic and domain-specific words and phrases**Key Advances**Reading • Balance of literature and informational texts • Text complexity Writing • Emphasis on argument and informative/explanatory writing • Writing about sources Speaking and Listening • Inclusion of formal and informal talk Language • Stress on general academic and domain-specific vocabulary**Key Advances**Standards for reading and writing in history/ social studies, science, and technical subjects • Complement rather than replace content standards in those subjects • Responsibility of teachers in those subjects Alignment with college and career readiness expectations**Key Advances**Standards for reading and writing in history/ social studies, science, and technical subjects • Complement rather than replace content standards in those subjects • Responsibility of teachers in those subjects Alignment with college and career readiness expectations**Common Core Standards**Mathematics**Design and Organization**Standards for Mathematical Practice • Carry across all grade levels • Describe habits of mind of a mathematically expert student Standards for Mathematical Content • K-8 standards presented by grade level • Organized into domains that progress over several grades • Grade introductions give 2–4 focal points at each grade level • High school standards presented by conceptual theme (Number & Quantity, Algebra, Functions, Modeling, Geometry, Statistics & Probability)**Standards of Mathematical Practices**Blended: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Process standards of problem-solving, reasoning and proof, communication, representation, connections. National Research Council Adaptive reasoning, strategic competence, conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, and productive disposition • Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. • Reason abstractly and quantitatively • Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others • Model with mathematics • Use appropriate tools strategically • Attend to precision • Look for and make use of structure • Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning**Design and Organization**• Content standards define what students should understand and be able to do • Clusters are groups of related standards • Domains are larger groups that progress across grades**Operations & Algebraic**Thinking Expressions & Equations Algebra Mathematical Domains Numbers & Operation in Base 10 Number Systems Numbers & Operation Fractions (3-5 Only) High School K-5 6-8**Number and Operations, Grade 1**Number and Operations in Base Ten • Extend the counting sequence. • Understand place value. • Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract. Operations and Algebraic Thinking • Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction. • Understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction. • Add and subtract within 20. • Work with addition and subtraction equations.**Fractions, Grades 3–6**• 3. Develop an understanding of fractions as numbers. • 4. Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering. • 4. Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers. • 4. Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions. • 5. Use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions. • 5. Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions. • 6. Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to divide fractions by fractions.**Statistics and Probability, Grade 6**Develop understanding of statistical variability • Recognize a statistical question as one that anticipates variability in the data related to the question and accounts for it in the answers. For example, “How old am I?” is not a statistical question, but “How old are the students in my school?” is a statistical question because one anticipates variability in students’ ages. • Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical question has a distribution which can be described by its center, spread, and overall shape. • Recognize that a measure of center for a numerical data set summarizes all of its values with a single number, while a measure of variation describes how its values vary with a single number.**Algebra, Grade 8**Graded ramp up to Algebra in Grade 8 • Properties of operations, similarity, ratio and proportional relationships, rational number system. Focus on linear equations and functions in Grade 8 • Expressions and Equations • Work with radicals and integer exponents. • Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations. • Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations. • Functions • Define, evaluate, and compare functions. • Use functions to model relationships between quantities.**High School**Conceptual themes in high school • Number and Quantity • Algebra • Functions • Modeling • Geometry • Statistics and Probability College and career readiness threshold • (+) standards indicate material beyond the threshold; can be in courses required for all students.**Geometry, High School**Middle school foundations • Hands-on experience with transformations. • Low tech (transparencies) or high tech (dynamic geometry software). High school rigor and applications • Properties of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations are assumed, proofs start from there. • Connections with algebra and modeling