Overview Chapter 1. Introduction Chapter 2. Psychological and Cognitive Issues Chapter 3. VR System Anatomy Chapter 4. Virtual Perception Chapter 5. Interaction Chapter 6. Virtual Worlds: Representation, Creation & Simulation Chapter 7. Virtual Worlds: Rendering Chapter 8. Networked VR Systems and Shared Virtual Worlds Chapter 9. Augmented Reality Chapter 10. Applications and Advanced Issues
Chapter 1. Introduction 1-1. What is VR? 1-2. Related Areas 1-3. History 1-4. State of the Art and R&D Issues 1-5. Some Novel Applications 1-6. Major Players 1-7. Information Resources
1-1. What is VR? 1. Science vs. engineering 2. Some terminologies 3. VR as a computer technology 4. VR as a media 5. Conceptual model
1. science vs. engineering • What is not VR. • high road - replication of reality low road - 3-D interface / interaction • VR = studies on reality ===> computational reality • analogous to AI • lots of hypes • AI as a science / engineering
VR as computational reality • To seek for the computational model of reality. • To apply the model to the VR system. • VR can be understood in the context of modeling efforts. • intelligence • linguistics • emotion • life • reality • compuational “X”
2. Some terminologies • virtual reality • virtual environment • synthetic environment • cyberspace • computer generated environment that is ... • immersive, • interactive, • multi-sensory, • viewer-centered, • 3-D.
3. VR as a computer technology • Technological trend • powerful • smart • physical • computer - human interaction • primary concern --- software other important issues --- hardware, human factors, social issues, infrastructure
Computer World Interacting with computers
Computer World New Paradigm for HCI
4. VR as a media • All medium attempt to create the “virtual presence”. • Theater, poem, fine arts, novel, telephone, movies, TV, ... • VR vs. existing media • immersive • interactive • 3-D • multimodal • mediated • Information is not sent back and forth. • Mediated environments are created and then experience.
effectiveness of communication depends on ... the sense of “being there”. • virtual presence • virtual presence depends on ... • sensory breadth • sensory depth • interactivity
5. Conceptual model • Basic components of VR systems: • machine • interface • human • Issues • The roles of the components • How to put them together? • How to conceptualize (or abstractize) the system? • functional breakdown • human and technological views
Sensors (Video Camera/ Virtual Camera) Effectors (CRT Display) Sensors (Eyes) Inter-linkage hardware Tele-operations hardware or simulation computer Human Operator Physical/ Virtual worksite Effectors (Robot/ Virtual effector) Sensors (Joystick/dataglove) Effectors (Hands) By Stephen Ellis, in “What are Virtual Environments?”, IEEE CG&A, pp.17-22, Jan 1994
Participant Environment Cognitive/psychological Prior personal experience Perceptual system Effectors Receptors Perception Virtual reality system Individual ergonomics Muscle system Sensors Physical Response Individual sensual sensitivity Action Emotional Response from “A Conceptual Virtual Reality Model”, J. Latta and D.Oberg, IEEE CG&A, vol 14, No. 1, pp.23-29, Jan 1994.
Virtual reality system Technical confection Perceptual systems Effector Sensor Participant Real environment Body states Muscle systems Sensor Effector Confection model from “A Conceptual Virtual Reality Model”, J. Latta and D.Oberg, IEEE CG&A, vol 14, No. 1, pp.23-29, Jan 1994.
Conceptual Model of VR sensing H-sensor perception cognition motion control H-effector action Human Natural environment
Conceptual Model of VR H-sensor perception cognition motion control H-effector ? Human Virtual environment
Conceptual Model of VR Virtual environment Human H-sensor perception cognition motion control H-effector V-sensor V-effector sensing action sensing ? action V-human V-vehicle V-bike V-hand etc.
Conceptual Model of VR Virtual environment Human H-sensor perception cognition motion control H-effector V-sensor V-effector sensing action sensing ? action Metaphor !
Conceptual Model of VR Virtual environment Human H-sensor perception cognition motion control H-effector V-sensor V-effector sensing action P-effector L-effector sensing output device input device action P-sensor L-sensor joystick mouse tracker TV camera microphone 2D - selector pick locator etc. 3D - navigator manipulator etc. V-human V-vehicle V-bike V-hand etc.