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Education in Rwanda. Presentation to the People to People Ambassador Programs delegation Dr Shirley Randell AM, Senior Advisor Education, SNV Rwanda July, 2008. East and Southern Africa. Four surrounding countries. Joint Review of the Education Sector. Goal

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Education in rwanda

Education in Rwanda

Presentation to the People to People Ambassador Programs delegation

Dr Shirley Randell AM, Senior Advisor

Education, SNV Rwanda

July, 2008

Joint review of the education sector
Joint Review of the Education Sector


  • To achieve Economic Development and Poverty Reduction through Quality Education


  • To review progress in the education sector towards meeting the GoR’s economic development and poverty reduction goals;

  • To assess sector development progress in key sub sector areas and discuss emerging priority areas identified in the Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS);

  • To review the systems and processes of the sector wide approach and its commitment to donor coordination and harmonisation.

Challenges in primary education
Challenges in Primary Education

  • The EFA and MDG goals for primary education call for universal completion of quality primary education: 52% in Rwanda is below the SSA rate and of course only half of the target

  • Dropout (15 %) and repetition (18%) rates are unacceptably high

  • Teacher pupil ratio is increasing (from 1:69 in 2005 to 1:74 in 2007

  • Transition rates from P6 (50%)

    unacceptably low, especially for girls

Why do girls drop out of school
Why do girls drop out of school?

  • Child labour - girls are kept home to fetch water, collect firewood, help in the garden, care for sick siblings and parents and grandparents suffering from HIV/Aids

  • Parent attitudes - culturally education is not so important for girls because they get married early and they go to their husband’s family

  • The toilets are often quite inadequate and girls stay home during their menstrual periods

  • Girls education policy is now approved by Cabinet and an implementation strategy is being developed

Challenges in secondary education
Challenges in Secondary Education

  • Untrained teachers

  • Inadequate classrooms

  • Few science laboratories

  • Only 40% of girls transit to government secondary schools as against 60% of boys

  • Private schools are expensive

Challenges in tevt
Challenges in TEVT

  • Responsibilities and budgets shared across two ministries

  • Limited budget

  • Courses do not match market demand

  • Geographic location of colleges

  • Poorly trained teachers

  • Private sector not involved

  • Limited equipment

    and materials

Challenges in tertiary education
Challenges in Tertiary Education

  • Gross Enrolment Rate for Higher Education in Rwanda is currently only 3.5 percent

  • Net Enrolment Rate is one percent (compared with 5 percent in Sub Saharan Africa)

  • Quality very low

  • Secondary students ill prepared for tertiary education

  • Limited equipment

  • Qualifications of staff poor

  • Gender issues – staff and students

Challenge of teachers
Challenge of Teachers

  • Only 52 percent of teachers in the workforce are qualified

  • Teachers colleges are graduating 1090 teachers a year but 2,600 are needed

  • Teachers earn half of what civil servants at an equivalent level earn - $73 a month

  • Most teachers leave the teaching service after three years - little motivation to stay in classrooms

  • Acute shortage of teachers in science subjects

  • Conditions and performance of 1600 contract teachers

Challenge of teachers1
Challenge of Teachers

  • Teachers are trained and familiar with didactic, interrogatory methods rather than learner-centred participative approaches

  • Limited inservice training

  • Recognition, appreciation, incentives and support are needed to motivate and retain teachers

  • Teaching Service Commission has been established and a Teachers Management and Development policy is being developed

Education in rwanda

Challenge of


Other education challenges
Other Education Challenges

  • The funding gap


  • The gap between teacher supply and demand

  • Textbooks – supply and distribution

  • Education Management and Information System (EMIS)

  • Quality standards

  • Monitoring and Evaluation

Emis education management information system
EMIS - Education Management Information System

  • Importance of data for planning purposes and to improve quality

  • Need for sex-disaggregated data to monitor girls’ progress

  • Challenges in getting data from schools

  • Connectivity and electricity

  • Lack of capacity at national, district and local levels

Sector as a whole
Sector as a whole

The JRES concluded that there

is need to further consider the education sector as a whole, within one holistic analysis, to explain and remedy phenomena such gender disaggregated drop-out, transition rates, learning achievement, TVET and higher education

- Nursery, primary, secondary, TVET, tertiary –

Budget share 45% 20.7% 0.1% 23.8%

Snv rwanda
SNV Rwanda

  • Goal: Poverty reduction and good governance

  • Mission:

  • SNV is dedicated to a society where all people enjoy the freedom to pursue their own sustainable development.

  • Our advisors contribute to this by strengthening the capacity of local organisations.

Education in snv rwanda
Education in SNV Rwanda

Two broad impact areas

  • Access to basic services (BASE)

    - Education

    - Water, sanitation and hygiene

    - Biogas

  • Income, production and employment (PIE)

    - Coffee

    - Beekeeping

    - Pro-poor tourism

Focus for impact
Focus for impact

  • Human resources increased from one to five full-time advisers

  • Focus on five districts in the South and one in the City of Kigali

    - Nyarugenge

    - Nyamagabe

    - Ngororero

    - Gisagara

    - Ruhango

Education in rwanda



UN Institutions (UNICEF, UNIFEM…)

International organisations (World Vision, SCFI, CIDA, Care Int'l, VSO, Concern, AAIR…)




GoR Institutions (Ministries, NISR, RIAM, ..)

Education Cluster






SNV Education Team



District Teacher colleges


International orgs represented at local level








SNV Education Team

A has a partnership with B

A provides funds to B

A participates in B

Other type of relationship

A provides capacity services to B


Local NGOs



Bridging the macro micro divide
Bridging the macro-micro divide

  • At national level, supporting the Ministry of Education in policy development and implementation

    - Parent and teacher association policy

    - Joint Action Forum Education Subcommission policy

    - Girls education policy implementation

    - Non-government collaboration – NGO forum and NGO cluster

Bridging the macro micro divide1
Bridging the macro–micro divide

  • At meso level building capacity in District Education Directors

    - Support to improve functioning of JAFESC

    - Support to improve functioning of school management boards

    - Support to improve the functioning of PTAs

Education in rwanda

Activities SNV and other education stakeholders

Capacity building of clients

Data available

Reports available



Improved client performance


Improved and applied management strategies


Improved parent teacher association (PTA) participation

Improvedaccess to and quality of education for boys and girls

Improvedcapacity in policymaking

Improved M&E toolsavailable

Improved girls educationpolicy

Improved PTA policy

Improved NGO coordination at national and district levels


Improved educational environment

Wider access to education

Improved quality of premises, teachers, teaching materials


Improved motivation for boys and girls to learn and go to school


Education in rwanda

Positioning choice ‘Primary education’

SNV, LCBs, Partners

Advice to improvefunctioning of PTAs

Support to Policymaking in Mineduc

Support to baseline data collection


Support to DEUs to organise JAFESCs

Support to Mineduc to organise NGO forums and clusters

Support DEUs to organise PTA training program

Support to DEUs to organise school management

NGO forums and clusters operational

Quality PTA training programs organised

JAFESCs operational


Improvedfunctioning of PTAs

Quality school management organised

Policiesavailable in Mineduc

Reliable databases available

Improvedclient performance

Improvedenabling environment


Improvedparticipation of parents and teachers in decisionmaking

Coordination of educationinterventions at District level

Coordination of educationinterventions at National level


Good planning in schools

Yr. 1-2

Quality of service deliveryimproved

School Business Plans available

Competences and quality of interventions of membersimproved

Yr. 2-3

Goodfunctioning of PTAs


Specific issues ongirlseducationaddressed

Quality of and

equity in educationimproved

Dropout and repetitionreduced, transitionincreased

Self reliance of schools realized

Quality M&E done in school

Harmonization, synergyhigherresult of input

Improvedaccessfor the poor

Improvedquality of education

More girls complete primary and transit to secondaryeducation

More educated boys and girls

Improved well being of the poor

Importance of educating girls
Importance of educating girls

  • Improving women’s literacy and the education of girls are basic to achievement of all Millennium Development Goals.

  • Quality education will equip people with knowledge and skills needed to

    - improve their lifestyle

    - enhance their job opportunities

    - protect themselves from diseases

    - take an active role in social, economic and political decision-making.